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GAS PRESSURE: The derivation of P = ghd
Barometer measures atmospheric pressure – why mercury not water?
(0.760 m) (13591.5 kg/m3) (9.80665m/s2) = 101325 N/m2 = 101.325 kPa
Manometers: See overlays
Natural Simple Gas Laws: Boyles, Charles, Amontons, Avogadros, Gay-Lussac's
Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT
Derivation of R and the meaning of an Ideal Gas
Molar Volume at STP (O°C and 760 mm) is 22.4 L
Applications: n = mass/molar mass AND d = m/V
Substitute this into Ideal Gas equation giving PVM = mRT
Substiture this into above equation and PM = dRT
Note bottom of page 179 on how gas densities differ from liquid densities
Hot air balloons and problems associated with
Mixtures of gases: Dalton's Law of partial pressures: Total pressure of a mixture of
gases is simply the sum of the partial pressures. (Each gas behaves as if it were
alone!) Most common application is the collection of gas over water.
Pwater + Pgas = Ptotal
Equation 6.17 mole fraction = pressure fraction = volume fraction
Kinetic Molecular Theory: See overlay for postulates
Equation 6.20 describes the root mean square equation. R is in Joules/mol K
Diffusion and Effusion.