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Transcript
Chapter 15 Information Search
Multiple Choice Questions
1. How has the Internet changed consumers' ability to search for information?
A) allows easy access to manufacturers' Web sites
B) allows easy access to other consumers
C) allows easy access to government agencies
D) expands the ability of marketers to provide information to consumers
E) all of the above
Answer: E Page: 531 Difficulty: easy
2. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding information search?
A) Consumers continually recognize problems and opportunities, so internal and
external searches for information to solve these problems are ongoing processes.
B) Searching for information is free.
C) Information search involves mental as well as physical activities that consumers
must perform.
D) The benefits of information search often outweigh the cost of search.
E) Consumers acquire a substantial amount of relevant information without
deliberate search.
Answer: B Page: 532 Difficulty: moderate
3. Once a problem is recognized, relevant information from long-term memory is used to
determine if a satisfactory solution is known, what the characteristics of potential
solutions are, what are appropriate ways to compare solutions, and so forth. This is
referred to as _____.
A) internal search
B) external search
C) primary search
D) ongoing search
E) evoked search
Answer: A Page: 532 Difficulty: easy
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Chapter 15 Information Search
4. Nakeisha wants to purchase some new make-up, but she wants something different
from what she is currently using. Since she has experience with this product, she just
thinks of the other products she has tried and decides to purchase one of those. Which
type of information search has Nakeisha performed?
A) internal search
B) external search
C) primary search
D) secondary search
E) evoked search
Answer: A Page: 532 Difficulty: easy
5. Which type of search can involve independent sources, personal sources, marketerbased information, and product experience?
A) internal search
B) external search
C) primary search
D) secondary search
E) evoked search
Answer: B Page: 532 Difficulty: easy
6. Nathan is purchasing a new computer, so he asks his friends and family for help in
selecting one. He also has searched the Internet and visited the Dell, Gateway, and
IBM Web sites and has consulted Consumer Reports. Nathan is conducting which
type of information search?
A) internal search
B) external search
C) primary search
D) secondary search
E) evoked search
Answer: B Page: 532 Difficulty: easy
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Chapter 15 Information Search
7. If, in response to a problem, a consumer recalls a single, satisfactory solution, no
further information search or evaluation may occur. The consumer purchases the
recalled brand and _____ has occurred.
A) automatic decision making
B) limited decision making
C) nominal decision making
D) extended decision making
E) truncated decision making
Answer: C Page: 533 Difficulty: moderate
8. Every winter, Laurie's skin becomes very dry and results in painful cracks in her skin
on her fingers. Once this happens, Laurie remembers that Zim's Crack Cream works
really well for this problem, so she stops at the store to pick some up. Which type of
decision making has occurred?
A) automatic decision making
B) limited decision making
C) nominal decision making
D) extended decision making
E) truncated decision making
Answer: C Page: 533 Difficulty: moderate
9. When a consumer notices a new product in a store because of the point-of-purchase
display, reads about the attributes of the product and recalls an unresolved problem
that this product will solve, and then purchases the product, _____ has occurred.
A) automatic decision making
B) limited decision making
C) nominal decision making
D) extended decision making
E) truncated decision making
Answer: B Page: 533 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
10. Wendy was in Wal-Mart and noticed a display with baking items collected together
and a little pad with recipes to tear off. She looked at the recipe and decided that this
would make a nice dessert for Thanksgiving, so she purchased the products that were
conveniently located on the display. Which type of decision making did Wendy
undertake?
A) automatic decision making
B) limited decision making
C) nominal decision making
D) extended decision making
E) truncated decision making
Answer: B Page: 533 Difficulty: moderate
11. For which type of decision making is external information search relatively important?
A) automatic decision making
B) limited decision making
C) nominal decision making
D) extended decision making
E) truncated decision making
Answer: D Page: 533 Difficulty: moderate
12. Eric was in the store and started looking at riding lawn mowers. He didn't come to
this store for the purpose of purchasing one, but he started considering it once he was
there. However, he did not purchase one on that trip. Instead he went to other stores
to look at their mowers, he asked his neighbor and his brother-in-law about their
mowers, and he searched the Internet before he decided on the brand to purchase.
Which type of decision making did Eric undertake?
A) automatic decision making
B) limited decision making
C) nominal decision making
D) extended decision making
E) truncated decision making
Answer: D Page: 533 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
13. Deliberate external search that occurs in the absence of problem recognition and is
done both to acquire information for possible later use and because the process itself is
pleasurable is known as _____.
A) internal search
B) ongoing search
C) eternal search
D) continuous search
E) perpetual search
Answer: B Page: 533 Difficulty: moderate
14. Barry is always searching information about wine. He reads Wine Spectator every
month, has several books related to wine, visits wine-related Web sites frequently, and
has visited several wine regions throughout the world. While he purchases wine
frequently, he does not conduct this information search for just that reason. He just
enjoys learning about wine. For Barry, his search for information about wine is a(n)
_____.
A) internal search
B) ongoing search
C) eternal search
D) continuous search
E) perpetual search
Answer: B Page: 533 Difficulty: moderate
15. A consumer decision requires information on which of the following?
A) The appropriate evaluative criteria for the solution of a problem.
B) The existence of various alternative solutions.
C) The performance level or characteristic of each alternative solution on each
evaluative criterion.
D) a and b
E) a, b, and c
Answer: E Page: 533 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
16. The desired features or characteristics required to meet a consumer's needs are his or
her _____.
A) evoked set
B) evoked criteria
C) consideration criteria
D) evaluative criteria
E) evaluative set
Answer: D Page: 533-534 Difficulty: moderate
17. Freddy is purchasing a new car, and he has decided that gas mileage, price, reliability,
and styling are important to him. These attributes represent Freddy's _____.
A) evoked set
B) evoked criteria
C) consideration criteria
D) evaluative criteria
E) evaluative set
Answer: D Page: 533-534 Difficulty: moderate
18. All of the brands that a consumer thinks of as potential solutions are known as the
_____.
A) awareness set
B) evaluative criteria
C) alternative set
D) preferred set
E) consideration set
Answer: A Page: 534 Difficulty: moderate
19. Karl and his wife are considering putting a built-in pool in their backyard. They were
discussing who they could get to do it for them, and they realized they knew of five
pool contractors in their city. These five pool contractors that they thought of as
potential contractors for them represent their _____.
A) awareness set
B) evaluative criteria
C) alternative set
D) preferred set
E) consideration set
Answer: A Page: 534 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
20. Which of the following is NOT a subcategory of the awareness set?
A) evoked set
B) purchase set
C) inert set
D) inept set
E) all of the above are subcategories of the awareness set
Answer: B Page: 534-536 Difficulty: moderate
21. The brands or products one will evaluate for the solution of a particular consumer
problem are called the _____.
A) evoked set
B) evaluative criteria
C) alternative set
D) preferred set
E) awareness set
Answer: A Page: 534 Difficulty: moderate
22. Thomas is aware of several different brands of electric shavers, but he is only
considering seriously three different brands. These three brands that Thomas is
evaluating represent his _____.
A) evoked set
B) evaluative criteria
C) alternative set
D) preferred set
E) awareness set
Answer: A Page: 534 Difficulty: moderate
23. The evoked set is also called the _____.
A) evaluative set
B) alternative set
C) awareness set
D) preferred set
E) consideration set
Answer: E Page: 534 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
24. Brands that are found completely unworthy of further consideration are members of
the _____.
A) evoked set
B) inept set
C) excluded set
D) inert set
E) discarded set
Answer: B Page: 535 Difficulty: moderate
25. Darcy is considering the purchase of living room furniture. While there are several
national-chain furniture stores in her city, she is not considering Haverty's because
she's purchased furniture from this store before and has been dissatisfied. For Darcy,
this furniture retailer is included in her _____.
A) evoked set
B) consideration set
C) inept set
D) excluded set
E) inert set
Answer: C Page: 535 Difficulty: moderate
26. Brands for which a consumer is aware but basically indifferent toward compose his or
her _____.
A) evoked set
B) consideration set
C) inept set
D) excluded set
E) inert set
Answer: E Page: 535 Difficulty: moderate
27. Elaine is considering the purchase of a computer and is aware that Toshiba and HP are
brands in this product category. However, she is basically indifferent toward them.
These two brands represent Elaine's _____.
A) evoked set
B) consideration set
C) inept set
D) excluded set
E) inert set
Answer: E Page: 535 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
28. To which set do alternatives the consumer does not know about belong?
A) inert set
B) inept set
C) unawareness set
D) unknown set
E) evoked set
Answer: C Page: 536 Difficulty: moderate
29. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding appropriate alternatives?
A) An evoked set is those brands or products one will evaluate for the solution of a
particular consumer problem.
B) The brand found completely unworthy of further consideration is a member of the
inept set.
C) Marketing strategy that focuses only on creating awareness is adequate.
D) Brands for which a consumer is aware of but basically indifferent toward compose
that consumer's inert set.
E) Alternatives the consumer does not know about compose the unawareness set.
Answer: C Page: 534-537 Difficulty: hard
30. Which of the following is a primary source of information available to consumers?
A) memory
B) personal sources
C) independent sources
D) marketing sources
E) all of the above
Answer: E Page: 538 Difficulty: easy
31. Past searches, prior personal experiences, and prior low-involvement learning are
examples of which source of information?
A) memory
B) personal sources
C) independent sources
D) marketing sources
E) experiential sources
Answer: A Page: 538 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
32. Karen is going to the mall to purchase new shoes. Based on her prior experience with
Nine West and her positive attitude toward them, she plans on looking at the Nine
West store first. Her decision to visit the Nine West store is based on which source of
information?
A) memory
B) personal sources
C) independent sources
D) marketing sources
E) experiential sources
Answer: A Page: 538 Difficulty: moderate
33. Friends, family, and others are examples of which source of information?
A) memory
B) personal sources
C) independent sources
D) marketing sources
E) experiential sources
Answer: B Page: 538 Difficulty: moderate
34. Kasi is seeking the advice of her parents in her decision on which college to attend.
Which source of information is Kasi using?
A) memory
B) personal sources
C) independent sources
D) marketing sources
E) experiential sources
Answer: B Page: 538 Difficulty: moderate
35. Magazines, consumer groups, and government agencies represent which source of
information?
A) memory
B) personal sources
C) independent sources
D) marketing sources
E) experiential sources
Answer: C Page: 538 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
36. Jon needed to purchase new tires for his SUV. He consulted Consumer Reports to see
how the various brands were rated. Jon consulted which type of information source?
A) memory
B) personal sources
C) independent sources
D) marketing sources
E) experiential sources
Answer: C Page: 538 Difficulty: moderate
37. Sales personnel, Web sites, and advertising represent which type of information
source?
A) memory
B) personal sources
C) independent sources
D) marketing sources
E) experiential sources
Answer: D Page: 538 Difficulty: moderate
38. Stephanie and her husband are considering the purchase of a 52" plasma television.
They have visited several manufacturers' Web sites, looked at the ads in the Sunday
newspaper, and have spoken with sales people at several electronics stores. Which
source of information are they using?
A) memory
B) personal sources
C) independent sources
D) marketing sources
E) experiential sources
Answer: D Page: 538 Difficulty: moderate
39. Which source of information includes inspection or product trial?
A) memory
B) personal sources
C) independent sources
D) marketing sources
E) experiential sources
Answer: D Page: 538 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
40. Lane is test driving several models of automobiles to help him decide which one to
purchase. Which source of information does this represent?
A) memory
B) personal sources
C) independent sources
D) marketing sources
E) experiential sources
Answer: D Page: 538 Difficulty: moderate
41. Which information source is NOT actively acquired by consumers?
A) past searches
B) personal experience
C) low-involvement learning
D) independent groups
E) marketer information
Answer: C Page: 539 Difficulty: hard
42. Susan actually knows quite a bit about some product categories that she doesn't
actively seek out information concerning and doesn't even own. Which of the
following is the most likely means by which she obtained this information?
A) past searches
B) personal experience
C) low-involvement learning
D) experiential sources
E) high-involvement learning
Answer: C Page: 539 Difficulty: moderate
43. Research shows that the most common use of the Internet is _____.
A) searching for a map or driving directions
B) getting news
C) buying a product
D) using e-mail
E) checking the weather
Answer: D Page: 540 Difficulty: hard
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Chapter 15 Information Search
44. Which of the following is true regarding the Internet as a source of information?
A) Online information is expected.
B) Online information boosts offline sales.
C) Online sources are viewed as valuable.
D) Online sources reduce a salesperson's role.
E) all of the above
Answer: E Page: 540 Difficulty: easy
45. Which of the following is NOT a research finding regarding the Internet as an
information source?
A) Online information is expected.
B) Online information boosts offline sales.
C) Online sources are viewed as valuable.
D) Online sources reduce a salesperson's role.
E) Over 90% of Americans use the Internet to research a product/service before
buying it.
Answer: E Page: 540 Difficulty: moderate
46. Which demographic characteristic describes the greatest percentage of U.S. adult
Internet users?
A) Women
B) Black, non-Hispanic
C) 65+ years of age
D) Household income of $75,000+
E) Rural
Answer: D Page: 541 Difficulty: hard
47. Research has shown that most of the online search leading up to a purchase was
_____.
A) brand only
B) generic
C) brand-item
D) retail
E) price-related
Answer: B Page: 542-543 Difficulty: hard
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Chapter 15 Information Search
48. Consumers conducting a generic search in an Internet search engine use which type of
terms?
A) retailer-related terms
B) brand-related terms
C) general product-related terms
D) brand- plus product-related terms
E) price-related terms
Answer: C Page: 542 Difficulty: hard
49. Bob is searching the Internet for information on digital cameras, so he types in the
words “digital camera” in Google. Which type of search is Bob conducting?
A) brand only
B) generic
C) brand-item
D) retail
E) price-related
Answer: B Page: 542 Difficulty: moderate
50. Services that aid consumers in their search and decision making on the Internet are
known as _____.
A) bots
B) worms
C) viruses
D) seekers
E) minimizers
Answer: A Page: 542 Difficulty: moderate
51. Amelia wanted to purchase a nice watch for her husband, but she was overwhelmed by
the amount of information available on the Internet for this product. She visited one
Web site that offered a service that would do the searching and comparisons for her,
so she decided to use it. The service Amelia used is referred to as a(n) _____.
A) minimizer
B) shopping bot
C) search engine
D) personal data assistant
E) Internet organizer
Answer: B Page: 542 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
52. Which of the following is NOT a major issue marketers must deal with concerning the
Internet's role in information search and decision making?
A) How can they get more consumers to use the Internet instead of seeking
information from salespeople?
B) How can they drive their information to consumers?
C) How can they drive consumers to their information?
D) How (if at all) can online selling be utilized or integrated with existing channels?
E) all of the above are major issues marketers must deal with
Answer: A Page: 544 Difficulty: hard
53. Unsolicited e-mail that is a major concern and irritant and is known as _____.
A) spit
B) spam
C) blog
D) junk mail
E) banner mail
Answer: B Page: 544 Difficulty: easy
54. Lisa has to check her e-mail frequently to delete the unsolicited messages she gets,
typically for loans and prescription drugs. If she doesn't delete them, her inbox will
fill up and e-mails that she wants to receive won't get through. This unsolicited e-mail
is known as _____.
A) spit
B) spam
C) blog
D) junk mail
E) banner mail
Answer: B Page: 544 Difficulty: easy
55. The percentage who clicks through a banner ad to the corporate Web site is known as
_____.
A) response rate
B) turnover rate
C) clickthrough rate
D) rating
E) hits
Answer: C Page: 545 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
56. _____ involves tracking consumer click patterns on a Web site and using that
information to decide on banner ad placement.
A) Clickthrough targeting
B) Search engine optimization
C) Bot software
D) Behavioral targeting
E) Spam
Answer: D Page: 545 Difficulty: moderate
57. Ben is interested in golf, so he visits several golf-related Web sites, such as the USGA
and the PGA. Unbeknownst to him, his surfing behavior is being tracked, and it's no
accident that he receives several banner ads for golf products and destinations. This is
called _____.
A) market segmentation
B) search engine optimization
C) spam
D) blogging
E) behavioral targeting
Answer: E Page: 545 Difficulty: moderate
58. Which of the following involves techniques designed to ensure that a company's Web
pages appear high on an Internet search result list?
A) market segmentation
B) search engine optimization
C) spam
D) blogging
E) behavioral targeting
Answer: B Page: 545 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
59. Kodak markets digital cameras and is aware that consumers search for information
concerning this product on the Internet using one of the several search engines (e.g.,
Google). To ensure that Kodak appears on the first page of results, this company pays
the search engine to become a sponsored link when consumers search the key words
“digital camera.” This is an illustration of _____.
A) market segmentation
B) search engine optimization
C) spam
D) blogging
E) behavioral targeting
Answer: B Page: 545 Difficulty: moderate
60. Which of the following factors influences the expected benefits and perceived costs of
search?
A) market characteristics
B) product characteristics
C) consumer characteristics
D) situation characteristics
E) all of the above
Answer: E Page: 547 Difficulty: easy
61. The number of alternatives, price range, store distribution, and information availability
are examples of which factor that influences the expected benefits and perceived costs
of search?
A) market characteristics
B) product characteristics
C) consumer characteristics
D) situation characteristics
E) technological characteristics
Answer: A Page: 547 Difficulty: moderate
62. Feature and quality variations across brands are referred to as _____.
A) product positioning
B) brand leverage
C) product differentiation
D) market segmentation
E) market characteristics
Answer: C Page: 549 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
63. Experience, familiarity, social status, shopping orientation and product involvement
are examples of which factor that influences the expected benefits and perceived costs
of search?
A) market characteristics
B) product characteristics
C) consumer characteristics
D) situation characteristics
E) personality traits
Answer: C Page: 547 Difficulty: moderate
64. Consumers' general approaches or patterns of external search are termed _____.
A) social status
B) shopping orientations
C) involvement
D) motives
E) differentials
Answer: B Page: 549 Difficulty: moderate
65. Which of the following is NOT a type of knowledge where a low level of calibration
frequently occurs to the detriment of consumers and firms?
A) memory of facts
B) memory of events
C) belief polarization
D) personal forecasts
E) all of the above
Answer: E Page: 550 Difficulty: easy
66. Perceived risk is a function of the _____.
A) individual
B) product
C) situation
D) a and b
E) a, b, and c
Answer: E Page: 550 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
67. Perceived risk is high for products whose failure to perform as expected would result
in a high _____.
A) social cost
B) financial cost
C) time cost
D) physical cost
E) all of the above
Answer: E Page: 551 Difficulty: easy
68. Which of the following is probably the most important situational variable with
respect to search behavior?
A) temporal perspective
B) task definition
C) physical surroundings
D) antecedent state
E) social surrounding
Answer: A Page: 551 Difficulty: hard
69. Which marketing strategies are appropriate for nominal decision making?
A) maintenance strategy and disrupt strategy
B) capture strategy and intercept strategy
C) preference strategy and acceptance strategy
D) maintenance strategy and intercept strategy
E) capture strategy and acceptance strategy
Answer: A Page: 551 Difficulty: hard
70. Which marketing strategies are appropriate for limited decision making?
A) maintenance strategy and disrupt strategy
B) capture strategy and intercept strategy
C) preference strategy and acceptance strategy
D) maintenance strategy and intercept strategy
E) capture strategy and acceptance strategy
Answer: B Page: 551 Difficulty: hard
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Chapter 15 Information Search
71. Which marketing strategies are appropriate for extended decision making?
A) maintenance strategy and disrupt strategy
B) capture strategy and intercept strategy
C) preference strategy and acceptance strategy
D) maintenance strategy and intercept strategy
E) capture strategy and acceptance strategy
Answer: C Page: 551 Difficulty: hard
72. If a brand is included in a consumer's evoked set, which marketing strategy is NOT
appropriate?
A) maintenance strategy
B) intercept strategy
C) capture strategy
D) preference strategy
E) all of the above are appropriate
Answer: B Page: 551 Difficulty: hard
73. Which marketing strategy is appropriate if the brand is not part of consumers' evoked
sets?
A) disrupt strategy
B) maintenance strategy
C) capture strategy
D) preference strategy
E) all of the above
Answer: A Page: 551 Difficulty: hard
74. Which marketing strategy requires consistent attention to product quality, distribution,
and a reinforcement advertising strategy because the brand is purchased habitually by
the target market?
A) capture strategy
B) acceptance strategy
C) maintenance strategy
D) preference strategy
E) disrupt strategy
Answer: C Page: 552 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
75. Coca-Cola has a large brand-loyal purchaser segment. Which marketing strategy is
appropriate for this brand?
A) capture strategy
B) acceptance strategy
C) maintenance strategy
D) preference strategy
E) disrupt strategy
Answer: C Page: 552 Difficulty: moderate
76. Which marketing strategy is appropriate if the brand is not part of the evoked set and
the target market engages in nominal decision making?
A) capture strategy
B) acceptance strategy
C) maintenance strategy
D) preference strategy
E) disrupt strategy
Answer: E Page: 553 Difficulty: moderate
77. If the target market engages in limited decision making and the brand is not part of
their evoked set, the objective will be to _____.
A) disrupt the existing decision patterns
B) capture as large a share of the purchases as practical
C) intercept the consumer during the search for information on the brands in the
evoked set
D) develop a strong position on those attributes important to the target market
E) defend against the disruptive tactics of competitors
Answer: C Page: 554 Difficulty: hard
78. One marketer for a brand of shampoo learned through research that consumers in the
target market engage in limited decision making but that this marketer's brand is not
part of their evoked set. Which marketing strategy is appropriate for this company?
A) capture strategy
B) acceptance strategy
C) maintenance strategy
D) preference strategy
E) intercept strategy
Answer: E Page: 554 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
79. Extended decision making with the brand in the evoked set requires which marketing
strategy?
A) capture strategy
B) preference strategy
C) intercept strategy
D) maintenance strategy
E) disrupt strategy
Answer: B Page: 554 Difficulty: moderate
80. Which marketing strategy is similar to preference strategy but is complicated by the
fact that the target market is not seeking information about the brand?
A) capture strategy
B) acceptance strategy
C) maintenance strategy
D) intercept strategy
E) disrupt strategy
Answer: B Page: 555 Difficulty: moderate
True/False Questions
81. Consumers continually recognize problems and opportunities, so internal and external
searches for information to solve these problems are ongoing processes.
Answer: True Page: 532 Difficulty: moderate
82. One reason a consumer does an ongoing search is because the process itself is
pleasurable to him or her.
Answer: True Page: 533 Difficulty: moderate
83. All of the brands thought of as potential solutions are known as the consideration set.
Answer: False Page: 534 Difficulty: hard
84. The brands found to be completely unworthy of further consideration comprise the
excluded set.
Answer: False Page: 535 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 15 Information Search
85. Marketing strategy that focuses only on creating awareness may be inadequate.
Answer: True Page: 537 Difficulty: moderate
86. The awareness set has generally been found to be smaller than the evoked set.
Answer: False Page: 537 Difficulty: moderate
87. The five primary sources of information available to consumers are memory, personal
sources, independent sources, marketing sources, and experiential sources.
Answer: True Page: 538 Difficulty: easy
88. Research has shown that the Internet is used equally by all segments of the adult U.S.
population.
Answer: False Page: 540-541 Difficulty: moderate
89. Online services use bots, which are software “robots” that do the shopping/searching
for users, and are therefore often referred to as shopping bots.
Answer: True Page: 542 Difficulty: moderate
90. Banner ads are one way to drive a firm's information to consumers.
Answer: True Page: 544 Difficulty: easy
91. Search engine optimization involves tracking consumer click patterns on a Web site
and using that information to decide on banner ad placement.
Answer: False Page: 545 Difficulty: moderate
92. Most purchases are the result of extended decision making and therefore involve
considerable external search prior to purchase.
Answer: False Page: 546 Difficulty: hard
93. Market characteristics that influence the expected benefits and perceived costs of
search include the number of alternatives, price range, store distribution, and
information availability.
Answer: True Page: 547 Difficulty: moderate
397
Chapter 15 Information Search
94. A recent study found that a low level of calibration frequently occurs to the detriment
of consumers and firms in the areas of memory of facts and events, belief polarization
and validity, and personal forecasts.
Answer: True Page: 550 Difficulty: hard
95. The perceived risk associated with unsatisfactory product performance increases
information search prior to purchase.
Answer: True Page: 550 Difficulty: easy
96. The maintenance marketing strategy is appropriate if consumers use extended decision
making and the brand is in the evoked set.
Answer: False Page: 551 Difficulty: moderate
Essay Questions
97. Discuss the types of information sought by consumers.
Page: 533-537 Difficulty: moderate
Answer:
A consumer decision requires information on the following:
a. The appropriate evaluative criteria for the solution of the problem.
Consumers first start with an internal search to determine the features or
characteristics required to meet their needs, which are the evaluative criteria. If
the consumer has limited experience with the product, he or she might also engage
in external search to learn which characteristics a good product should have.
b. The existence of various alternative solutions. After, and while, searching for
appropriate evaluative criteria, a consumer would probably seek appropriate
alternatives, again starting with an internal search. All of the brands thoughts of as
potential solutions are known as the awareness set, and it is composed of three
subcategories: evoked, or consideration, set (brands the consumer has decided to
consider), inept set (brands actively disliked or avoided), and the inert set (brands
of which consumer is aware but is basically indifferent toward).
c. The performance level or characteristic of each alternative solution on each
evaluative criterion. To choose among the brands in the evoked set, the
consumer compares them on the relevant evaluative criteria. This process requires
the consumer to gather information about each brand on each pertinent evaluative
criterion.
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Chapter 15 Information Search
98. Kerri is purchasing a new washer and dryer. Name and describe all the primary
sources of information available to her.
Page: 538 Difficulty: easy
Answer:
The five primary source of information available to consumers are:
a. Memory of past searches, personal experiences, and low-involvement learning.
b. Personal sources, such as friends, family, and others.
c. Independent sources, such as magazines, consumer groups, and government
agencies.
d. Marketing sources, such as sales personnel, Web sites, and advertising.
e. Experiential sources, such as inspection or product trial.
99. With respect to the Internet's role in information search and decision making,
marketers have at least three major strategic issues to deal with. Identify all three
issues, and discuss the first two.
Page: 544-545 Difficulty: moderate
Answer:
The three major strategic issues marketers have to deal with are:
a. How can they drive their information to consumers? This is important since
consumers are not always actively searching. One way is through Web
advertising, including banner ads. E-mail is also an important tool for pushing
information to consumers. However, spam (unsolicited e-mails) continues to be a
major concern and irritant. Permission-based e-mail (PBE) in which the consumer
“opts-in” to receive e-mail appears to be something consumers are highly receptive
to.
b. How can they drive consumers to their information? This is a daunting and
important task given the explosion in the amount and sources of information on the
Web. Offline media are one way for calling attention to a Web site. Banner ads
are another way to drive traffic to Web sites. Behavioral targeting (i.e., tracking
consumer click patterns on a Web site and using that information to decide on
banner ad placement) appears to improve banner performance across various
outcomes including clickthrough rates. Search engine optimization (SEO)
involves techniques designed to ensure that a company's Web page appears high
on a results list. Web site design is also critical, and driving ongoing and repeat
traffic to a Web site requires such factors as relevant and frequently updated
content.
c. How (if at all) can online selling be utilized or integrated with existing channels?
(This issue is addressed in Chapter 17.)
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Chapter 15 Information Search
100. Discuss the market characteristics that influence the expected benefits and perceived
costs of search.
Page: 547-548 Difficulty: moderate
Answer:
Market characteristics include the number of alternatives, price range, store
distribution, and information availability. It is important to keep in mind that it is the
consumer's perception of, or beliefs about, the market characteristics that influence
shopping behavior, not the actual characteristics. The greater the number of
alternatives available to resolve a particular problem, the more external search there is
likely to be. The perceived range of prices among equivalent brands in a product class
is a major factor in stimulating external search. If the consumer perceives a wide
variation on prices, efficient shopping would lead to significant financial gain. Store
distribution--the number, location, and distances between retail stores in the market-affects the number of store visits a consumer will make before purchase. Because
store visits take time, energy, and in many cases money, a close proximity of stores
will often increase this aspect of external search. In general, information availability,
including format, is directly related to information use.
101. Grant is the marketing manager for a consumer package goods manufacturer. He
realizes that consumers use nominal decision making when purchasing his products.
Explain how the marketing strategies and tactics he should use would differ if his
company's brand is in the consumers' evoked set compared to when it is not.
Page: 551-553 Difficulty: hard
Answer:
The two marketing strategies appropriate for consumers using nominal decision
making are maintenance strategy and disrupt strategy. Maintenance strategy is
appropriate if the brand is purchases habitually by the target market, and the
marketer's strategy is to maintain that behavior (i.e., brand is in evoked set). This
requires consistent attention to product quality, distribution (avoiding out-of-stock
situations), and a reinforcement advertising strategy. In addition, the marketer must
defend against the disruptive tactics of competitors. If the brand is not part of the
evoked set and the target market engages in nominal decision making, the marketer's
first task is to disrupt the existing decision patterns. This is a difficult task since the
consumer does not seek external information or even consider alternative brands
before a purchase. Low-involvement learning over time could generate a positive
product position for the marketer's brand, but this alone would be unlikely to shift
behavior. In the long run, a major product improvement accompanied by attentionattracting advertising could shift the target market into a more extensive form of
decision making. In the short run, attention-attracting advertising aimed specifically at
breaking habitual decision making can be successful. Sales promotions, striking
package designs, and point-of-purchase displays may disrupt a habitual purchase
sequence. Comparative advertising is also often used for this purpose.
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