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Transcript
Practice Exam I
1. Which of the following sequences best describes the scientific method?
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
observation, hypothesis, experiment, absolute proof
guess, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion
observation, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion
hypothesis, experiment, observation, conclusion
experiment, observation, hypothesis, conclusion
2. The Cell Theory states that "all cells come from other cells," but this is impossible to prove.
This theory is an example of making broad-scale generalizations from specific observations,
which within science is called:
A) Hypothesis formation
D) Inductive reasoning
B) Deductive reasoning
E) Observation
C) Blind faith
5. One of the key distinctions between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is the presence of
_____________ cells, which is lacking in _____________ cells.
A) a nucleus in eukaryotic . . . prokaryotic B) a nucleus in prokaryotic . . . eukaryotic
C) DNA in prokaryotic . . . eukaryotic
D) DNA in eukaryotic . . . prokaryotic
E) a cytoplasmic organelle in prokaryotic . . . eukaryotic
12. Which process is NOT associated with the reproduction of bacteria?
A) elongation of the parent cell
C) replication of DNA
B) synthesis of new cell wall material
D) mitosis
E) binary fission
15. The lowest level of structure capable of performing all the activities of life is:
A) DNA
D) an organism
B) a nucleus
E) a species
C) a cell
22. Mitochondria and bacteria share several common features. For example,
A) both can be found living freely in the environment
B) each contains a small amount of DNA C) both are surrounded by a cell wall
D) both have a tiny nucleus
E) all of the above
29. All of the following are characteristic of science EXCEPT:
A) unchangeable theories
C) generalization from observations
E) generation of falsifiable statements
B) accumulation of factual data
D) a base of knowledge
34. A testable statement is a(n):
A) assumption
D) inductive leap
B) theory
E) scientific question
C) hypothesis
5. Current debates about the number and boundaries of the kingdoms of life center mainly on
which groups of organisms?
A) plants and animals
B) plants and fungi
C) prokaryotes and single-celled eukaryotes
D) fungi and animals
E) amphibians and reptiles
6. Which is the least accurate statement about the evolution of prokaryotes and the changing
environment of Earth?
A) Prokaryotes have interacted with the environment for more than 3 billion years.
B) Although prokaryotes have diverse morphologies, they all basically have the same metabolic
pathways and products.
C) Oxygen-producing photosynthesis favored the evolution of cells capable of performing
aerobic respiration.
D) Cyanobacteria promoted the eventual development of an oxygenated atmosphere.
E) Bacteria are among several kinds of organisms that recycle chemical elements in ecosystems.
10. Which of the following has been present in Earth's living organisms for the least amount of
evolutionary time?
A) the ability to metabolize carbon-containing molecules
C) photosynthesis
D) nuclei
B) cell walls
E) genes composed of DNA
11. Organisms classified as Euglenozoa have previously been classified as Protozoa, Protista,
plants, and animals. Why the confusion?
A) Like Protozoa, they are unicellular.
B) Like animals, many are heterotrophic.
C) Like plants, many are photosynthetic.
D) Like most protistans, they don't fit neatly into other categories.
E) All of the above have caused confusion about the evolutionary relationships of Euglenozoa.
12. Organisms called protists or protistans include species that
A) are truly multicellular.
sexually.
B) reproduce asexually.
D) ingest their food.
E) all of the above
C) reproduce
13. Which of the following represents a probable order in the biological history of Earth?
A) metabolism before mitosis
B) eukaryotes before prokaryotes
C) DNA genes before RNA genes
D) animals before algae
E) an oxidizing atmosphere followed by a reducing atmosphere
15. Which of the following includes organisms that are important in ocean food webs, cause red
tides that kill many fish, can be carnivorous, and help build coral reefs?
A) ciliates
B) apicomplexans
C) dinoflagellates
D) euglenoids
E) There is not a group of organisms that encompasses all of these characteristics.
16. Approximately how far does the fossil record extend back in time?
A) 6,000 years
B) 3,200,000 years
D) 3,200,000,000 years
E) 5,000,000,000,000 years
C) 6,000,000 years
18. In which of the following ways can prokaryotes be considered to be more successful on
Earth than humans?
A) Prokaryotes are much more numerous and have more biomass than humans.
B) Prokaryotes occupy more diverse habitats than humans.
C) Prokaryotes have survived on Earth for billions of years longer than humans have.
D) Only B and C are correct.
E) A, B, and C are correct.
19. Modes of obtaining nutrition, used by at least some bacteria, include all of the following
except
A) chemoautotrophy.
B) photoautotrophy.
D) chemoheterotrophy.
E) photoheterotrophy.
C) heteroautotrophy.
Practice Exam II
20. The oxygen revolution probably began with the origin of which group of organisms?
A) plants
B) eukaryotes
D) cyanobacteria
E) cellular respiration
C) prokaryotes
22. Which of the following pieces of evidence most strongly supports the common origin of all
life on Earth? All organisms
A) require energy.
code.
B) reproduce.
C) use essentially the same genetic
D) show heritable variation.
E) have undergone evolution.
23. The goal in classifying organisms should be to create categories that reflect the evolutionary
histories of organisms. What system would be best to use?
A) a three-kingdom classification system
B) a five-kingdom classification system
C) an eight-kingdom classification system
D) a system that uses as many kingdoms as necessary to be accurate
E) a system that returns to that used by Linnaeus
24. A new pathogenic bacterium has been obtained from a number of individuals exhibiting the
same symptoms, and it has been isolated and grown in pure culture. What additional steps, if
any, are necessary to establish that this bacterium is the cause of the disease?
A) Sufficient data have been accumulated, and no further research need be done.
B) Gram stains must be applied, the appropriate exotoxins or endotoxins must be isolated, and
their chemical structures must be analyzed.
C) The method of transfer of the infection must be identified, and the bacteria must be shown to
infect a variety of different species.
D) Cultured bacteria must be introduced to uninfected organisms, cause the same symptoms, and
then be isolated from these test organisms.
E) An antibody must be located, isolated, and shown to provide immunization against further
infection by the bacteria.
26. The strongest evidence for the endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotic organelles is the
similarity between extant (i.e., still-living) prokaryotes and
A) nuclei and chloroplasts.
mitochondria.
B) mitochondria and chloroplasts.
D) ribosomes and nuclei.
E) ribosomes and cilia.
C) cilia and
31. If humans and pandas belong to the same class, then they must also belong to the same
A) order.
species.
B) phylum.
C) family.
D) genus.
E)
33. In what ways are all protists alike? They are all
A) multicellular.
B) photosynthetic.
D) nonparasitic.
E) eukaryotic.
C) marine.
34. A randomly selected group of organisms from a taxonomic family should show more genetic
variation than a randomly selected group from a
A) class.
phylum.
B) genus.
C) kingdom.
D) order.
E)
35. Which of the following is the strongest evidence that prokaryotes evolved before
eukaryotes?
A) the primitive structure of plants
B) meteorites that have struck the Earth
C) abiotic experiments that constructed liposomes in the laboratory
D) Liposomes look like prokaryotic cells.
E) The oldest fossilized cells resemble prokaryotes.
1. Which of the following is NOT a property of all life forms?
A. reproduction
B. heritable information in the form of DNA
C. photosynthesis
D. growth and development
E. response to stimuli in the environment
1. In which of the following ways are ALL living things alike?
A. They all undergo mitosis.
B. They all contain two complete sets of chromosomes.
C. They all contain complex, reduced molecules.
D. They all produce chemical energy from sunlight.
E. They are all composed of cells with nuclei.
1. All living things are characterized by:
A. Metabolism - the ability to carry out controlled chemical processes
B. Structure - a high degree of organization
C. an ability to consume oxygen (O2)
D. heritable information
E. All of the above EXCEPT C.
1. In scientific methodology, which of the following comes first:
A. testing of a deductive hypothesis
B. formulation of a testable hypothesis
C. observation
D. disproof of a tested hypothesis
E. development of a general statement or idea
7. Organelles containing their own DNA include which of the following:
A. Lysosomes only
B. Golgi bodies only
C. Chloroplasts only
D. Mitochondria only
E. Both chloroplasts and mitochondria
17. Viruses belong to which kingdom?
a. Monera
b. Protista
d. Fungi
e. None of the above
25. Some bacteria can move by the:
A. use of flagella
C. use of a gliding motion
c. Plantae
B. use of spiral filaments
D. All of the above
25. TRUE or FALSE: Bacteria typically reproduce via mitosis.
A. True
B. False
25. The first prokaryotes were probably:
A. parasitic bacteria
B. mycoplasmas
C. cyanobacteria
D. anaerobic photosynthetic organisms
E. chemoheterotrophs that used abiotically made organic compounds
25. Most bacteria are pathenogenic (i.e., cause diseases):
A. TRUE
B. FALSE
25. Photoautotrophs use:
A. light as an energy source and CO2 as a source of carbon
B. light as an energy source and organic matter as a source of carbon
C. inorganic chemicals as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source
D. inorganic chemicals as an energy source and organic matter as a source of carbon
E. all of the above
25. TRUE or FALSE: Bacteria have no means of undergoing sexual recombination of their
genomes.
A. True
B. False
26. Which feature of protists is probably endosymbiotic in origin?
A. nucleus
B. mitochondria
C. chloroplasts
D. both (b) and (c)
E. none of the above
26. The largest seaweeds belong to which group?
A. Euglenophyta
B. Dinoflagellata
D. Phaeophyta
E. Rhodophyta
C. Chlorophyta
26. Characteristics of amoeboid protozoans include all of the following EXCEPT:
A. they are single celled
B. they ingest their food
C. they have flagellated stages in their life cycle
D. they move slowly by use of pseudopods
E. they inhabit freshwater, marine, and soil environments
26. Which of the following groups is most closely related to plants?
A. Euglenophyta (Euglenas)
B. Dinoflagellata (dinoflagellates)
C. Chlorophyta (green algae)
D. Phaeophyta (brown algae)
E. Rhodophyta (red algae)
26. Why are red algae red?
A. They lack chlorophyll.
B. They are related to cyanobacteria.
C. Their pigments preferentially absorb red light.
D. Their pigments preferentially absorb blue and green light.
E. They live in hot water.
26. A certain unicellular eukaryote has a siliceous (glasslike) shell, chlorophyll a, and is
autotrophic. It is most likely a:
A. slime mold
B. foraminiferan
C. radiolarian
D. diatom
E. dinoflagellate
Practice Exam III
27. Evolutionary developments that enhanced the adaptation of plants to terrestrial life arose in
which of the following sequences (first to last, in temporal sequence):
A. seeds, flowers, vascular systems
B. vascular systems, flowers, seeds
C. seeds, vascular systems, flowers
D. flowers, seeds, vascular systems
E. vascular systems, seeds, flowers
27. The following are classified as vascular plants that reproduce via spores:
A. ferns, horsetails, and clubmosses B. horsetails and mosses
C. mosses and clubmosses
D. ferns and bryophytes
E. mosses and ferns
27. All bryophytes (mosses, liverworts & hronworts) share certain characteritics. These are:
A. reproductive cells in gametangia; embryos
B. branched sprorphytes
C. seeds
D. lignified cell walls
E. vascular tissues, trues leaves and a waxy cuticle
27. Important terrestrial adaptations that evolved exclusively in seed plants include all of the
following EXCEPT:
A. dispersal of new plants by seeds
B. pollination
C. transport of water through vascular tissue
D. retention of spores by the parent sporophyte
E. retention of the gametophyte plant within the sporophytes
27. A complete alternation of generations with free-living haploid and diploid stages is found
within which of the following groups?
A. Ferns
B. Angiosperms
C. Green algae
D. All of the above
E. (A) and (C) only
27. The kingdom Plantae probably evolved from:
A. a primitive fungus.
B. a photosynthetic prokaryote.
C. a primitive photosynthetic animal.
D. a green algae.
E. a protozoan.
27. The following are non-vascular plants:
A. liverworts
B. lichens
C. horsetails
D. both a and c
E. all of the above
27. A pine tree belongs to which major taxonomic group of plants:
A. monocots.
B. dicots.
c. angiosperms.
d. gymnosperms.
e. woody plants.
27. Conifers:
a. are flowering plants
c. are all evergreens
b. are seed-bearing plants
d. are dicotyledons
e. are all of the above
27. The crop plants corn, rice, bananas, and wheat all belong to which phylogenetic group:
A. Phylum Plantae
B. Class Angiospermae
C. Class Monocotyledones
D. Class Dicotyledones
E. None of the above
27. The male (pollen-producing) structures of a perfect flower are collectively referred to as the:
A. Petals
B. Carpels
C. Stamen
D. Stigma
E. Style
27. Match the following four organisms with their proper group at left:
27. Orchid
A. Non-vascular plants
27. Pine tree
B. Vascular seedless plants
27. Fern
C. Non-flowering seed plants
27. Moss
D. Flowering seed plants
27. The male portion of a flower, the stamen, includes both the
filament and ____________________.
a. carpel
b. stigma
c. style
d. anther
e. ovary
27. The carpel, the female reproductive structure of flowers, includes:
a. anthers and filament
b. stigma, style, and ovary
c. petals and sepals
d. ovary and stamen
e. anthers, stigma, and ovary
27. Which of the following is true concerning the sporophyte and gametophyte generations in
flowering plants?
a. The gametophyte generation is a relatively few cells in the flower
or other reproductive structure.
b. The two generations are not physically separated as in the ferns.
c. The sporophyte generation is what we see when observing a plant.
d. The sporophyte generation is dominant.
e. All of the above.
27. Which of the following are NOT among the seven most important crop plant species?
a. corn
b. potatoes
c. beans
d. rice
e. sweet potatoes
27. A fruit is most commonly:
A. a mature ovary
D. a modified root
B. a thickened style
C. an enlarged ovule
E. a mature female gametophyte