Kassidy Kenney Chapter 27: The Eisenhower Years Pages 577-580 1) US Soviet Relations a) Spirit of Geneva i) Stalin’s death in 1953, Eisenhower called for a slowdown of the arms raceatoms for peace ii) Soviets withdrew troops from Austria, established peace with Greece and Turkey iii) 1955 summit meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, between Eisenhower and new Soviet Leader, “Nikolai Bulganin” iv) Soviets reject open skies- open to aerial photography by opposing nation to eliminate the chance of surprise attacks v) Nikita Khrushchev, next Soviet ruler, denounced crimes of Joseph Stalin and supported “peaceful coexistence” with the west b) Hungarian revolt i) East Germany and Poland demand reforms from the Communist gov ii) October 1956 Hungary overthrows the gov iii) Replaced by liberal leaders who wanted to pull Hungary out of the Warsaw pact iv) Soviet tanks crushed the freedom fighters and restored control over Hungary, US took no action c) Sputnik Shock i) Soveit Union launched the first satellites, technological leadership of US questioned ii) 1958 congress National Defense and Education Act (NDEA)- science ans forgien language in schools iii) National Air and Space Administration (NASA) – directed the US efforts to build missiles and explore outer space d) Second Berlin Crisis i) “ We will bury capitalism” Khrushchev pushed the Berlin issue in 1958 by giving the West 6 months to pull troops from West Berlin ii) Eisenhower invited Khrushchev to visit the US in 1959 iii) Agreed to put off the crisis, scheduled a second summit e) U-2 incident i) Two weeks before the planned meeting, Russians shot down U-2, an US spy plane over the Soviet Union ii) US conducted regular spy flights over Soviet territory to find out about its missile program iii) Called off the Paris summit 2) Communism in Cuba a) Fidel Castro overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 b) Castro nationalized the American owed businesses and properties, Eisenhower cut off all trade to Cuba c) Set up a Communist Totalitarian state 3) Eisenhower’s legacy a) Credit for Cchecking Communist aggression and keeping the peace without the loss of American lives in combat b) Process of relaxing tensions with the Soviet Union c) 1958 first arms limitations by voluntarily suspending above-ground testing of nuclear weapons d) “Military-industrial complex” i) Farewell address spoke out against the negative impact of the Cold War on the US ii) US was in danger of becoming a military state 4) Civil Rights movement a) Origins of the Movement i) Jackie Robinson broke the color barrier, becoming the first African American baseball player ii) Truman integrated armed forces in 1948 iii) African Americans in the South were still segregated in schools and public iv) Kept from voting by poll taxes, literacy tests. Grandfather clauses, intimidation b) Changing demographics i) Movement of millions of AA from rural south to urban centers if the south and north c) Changing Attitudes in the Cold War i) US reputation for freedom and democracy was competing globally against communism ii) Racial segregation stood out as a glaring wrong 5) Desegregating the Schools a) 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson “separate but equal” b) Brown Decision i) 1950s NAACP lawyers lead by Thurgood Marshall ii) Brown V Board of Ed of Topeka (1) Segregation unconstitutional bc of 14th amendment “equal protection of the laws” (2) Supreme Court agreed, overturned the Plessy case iii) Separate facilities became unconstitutional c) Resistance in the South i) States in the Deep South fought : (1) Temporary closing the schools (2) Arkansas used national guard to keep 9 AA students out (a) Eisenhower sent federal troops to guard the students 6) Montgomery Bus Boycott a) Montgomery Alabama, Rosa Parks arrested b) Nonviolent protest- did not ride buses c) Martin Luther King, Jr, Kassidy Kenney Chapter 27 The Eisenhower Years Vocabulary “Spirit of Geneva”- 1955 summit meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, between Eisenhower and new Soviet Leader, “Nikolai Bulgarian” Open-skies- Soviets reject open skies- open to aerial photography by opposing nation to eliminate the chance of surprise attacks Nikita Khrushchev-leader of the Soviet Union during the second Berlin crisis Warsaw Pact- An alliance between communist nations to rival the NATO Sputnik- the first satellites, launched by the Soviet Union NASA- National Atmospheric and Space Administration, create to rival the Soviet creation of the satellite U-2- the United states scheduled regular fly-over using spy planes over the Soviet Union to look for signs of war. This was a spy plane the Russians shot down Jackie Robinson- the first African American baseball player to break into the major leagues in America Montgomery Bus Boycott- After the arrest of Rosa Parks, African American boycotted the buses Kassidy Kenney Chapter 27: The Eisenhower Years So What’s 1. President Eisenhower received credit for checking Communist aggression and keeping the peace without the loss of American lives in combat, and for creating the first arms limitations by voluntarily suspending above-ground testing of nuclear weapons in 1958. 2. The Civil Rights movement began because the United States needed to be an example of capitalism people around the world would wont to follow. The racism and segregation in the Untied States would be a glaring problem. The Civil Rights movement was lead by Jackie Robinson when he broke the color barrier in baseball, and Rosa Parks.