Name:______________________ Chapter 31: Fungi Created by Ms. Foglia, adapted by Ms. Rhodes, with text from Campbell and Reece Biology. This chapter describes the morphology, life cycles, evolutionary history, diversity, and economic and ecological importance of the kingdom Fungi. Fungi play an essential ecological role, both as decomposers and by their mycorrhizal association with plant roots. A flagellated protistan may have been the common ancestor to fungi and animals. 1. How do fungi acquire nutrients? 2. Because of this mode of nutrition, fungi have evolved what structure to provide for both extensive surface area and rapid growth? 3. How do the cell walls of fungi differ from the cell walls of plants? 4. How do fungi contribute to an ecosystem? 5. Give some examples of how fungi are important to humans. Using Figure 31.4 on page 577 and the information in the text, outline the key characteristics of each branch of the Kingdom Fungi identified on the diagram. Include several examples of organisms in each division. Division Characteristics Example Word Roots Myco- = fungus; rhizo- = root (mycorrhizae: mutualistic associations of plant roots and fungi.) Fill in the blanks. 1. _______________ Division between cells in fungal hyphae 2. _______________ Hyphae with nulei from two parents. 3. _______________ Component of cell walls in most fungi. 4. _______________ Produced by fungi for absorbtive nutrition. 5. _______________ Club-shaped reproductive structure found in mushrooms. 6. _______________ Sacs that contain sexual spores in sac fungi. 7. _______________ Mutualistic associations between plant roots and fungi. 8. _______________ Resistant structures produced by zygomycetes 9. _______________ Hyphae with many nuclei 10. _______________ Fungal group that diverged earliest. 11. _______________ Distinctive feature of glomeromycetes. 12. _______________ Clade that includes fungi, animals, and related flagellated protists. Multiple Choice 1. a. b. c. d. e. The major difference between fungi and plants is that fungi Have an absorptive form of nutrition. Do not have a cell wall. Are not eukaryotic. Are multinucleate but not multicellular. Reproduce by spores. 2. a. b. c. d. e. A fungus that is both a parasite and saprobe is one that Digests the nonliving portions of its host’s body. Lives off the sap within its host’s body. First lives as a parasite but then consumes the host after it dies. Lives as a mutualistic symbiont on it’s host. Causes athlete’s foot and vaginal infections. 3. a. b. c. d. e. Lichens are symbiotic associations that Usually involve an ascomycete and a green alga or cyanobacterium. Can reproduce sexually by forming soredia. Require moist environments to grow. Fix nitrogen for absorption by plant roots. Are unusually resistant to air pollution.