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AP Bio Chap. 54
40 Points
Fill in the Blank (1-10, each worth 2 points. 20 Total)
1. The proportions of individuals in each age group in a population make up its
2. A group of individuals born at the same time is known as a __________________.
3. The number of individuals of any particular species that a habitat or environment can
support is that habitat’s __________________(K).
4. An interaction in which one of two participants benefits and the other is not affected is
known as ____________________.
5. An interaction in which both partners benefit is known as ___________________.
6. The total number of individuals of a species per unit of area (or volume) is called the
7. When a single bacterium is placed in a culture vessel, the resulting population at first
grows exponentially; however, as the population expands and uses up its resources, the
growth rate eventually slows down and stops. This S-shaped growth pattern is best
modeled mathematically as ____________________ growth.
8. If the death rate in a population is unrelated to the number of individuals in an area, the
resulting change in population size is said to be __________________________.
9. A __________________ consists of all the individuals of a species within a given area.
10. A __________________ can be used to predict future trends in populations
Multiple Choice (11-24, each worth 1 point. 14 total)
11. Of the following factors that regulate population size, the most density-independent
factor is
a. food supply.
b. predators.
c. disease.
d. availability of nesting sites.
e. sudden temperature changes.
12. The relationship between a human and the fungus that causes athlete’s foot is
_______ when the fungus feeds only on dead skin cells, but becomes _______ if the
fungus penetrates the skin and feeds on living cells.
a. amensalistic; commensalistic
b. commensalistic; amensalistic
c. a host–parasite interaction; commensalistic
d. amensalistic; a host–parasite interaction
e. commensalistic; a host–parasite interaction
13. The fact that many tree species and mycorrhizal fungi cannot survive unless they are
associated with one another indicates that their relationship is
a. amensalistic.
b. commensalistic.
c. competitive.
d. mutualistic.
e. a parasite–host interaction.
14. The number of individuals in a population is least affected by the rate of
a. births.
b. deaths.
c. mating.
d. immigration.
e. emigration.
15. A population such as Sweden’s, which has a low birth rate and a low death rate,
a. will have a relatively even distribution of individuals of different ages.
b. will have a population dominated by young individuals.
c. will have a population dominated by old individuals.
d. will have a population dominated by individuals of intermediate age, with relatively
few young or old individuals.
e. can have almost any age distribution. Birth and death rates do not affect the age
16. Cattle egrets follow cattle around because the cattle disturb insects as they walk,
making the insects easier for the egrets catch. There is no cost or benefit to the cattle from
this interaction. This interaction is an example of
a. commensalism.
b. amensalism.
c. mutualism.
d. parasitism.
e. competition.
17. Legumes, such as soybeans, form root nodules that become infected by Rhizobium
bacteria. These bacteria convert nitrogen into nitrates, a form that is usable by plants and
is frequently limited in terrestrial environments. The plants benefit from the bacteria in
this way, and the bacteria benefit as well because they receive nutrients and energy from
the plants. This interaction is an example of
a. commensalism.
b. amensalism.
c. mutualism.
d. parasitism.
e. predation.
18. A single bacterium put in an environment with unlimited resources and no
competition would
a. reproduce logistically.
b. reproduce exponentially.
c. reproduce linearly.
d. not reproduce.
e. Both b and c
19. The intrinsic rate of increase, rmax, is
a. the number of individuals added to each generation in a growing population under
optimal conditions.
b. the difference between the average per capita birth rate, b, and the average per capita
death rate, d, under optimal conditions.
c. the number of individuals added to each generation in a growing population under the
conditions that are actually occurring.
d. the average per capita birth rate, b, under optimal conditions.
e. the difference between the average per capita birth rate, b, and the average per capita
death rate, d, under the conditions that are actually occurring.
20. Certain woodpecker-like African birds have become specialized for removing and
eating ticks and parasitic insects from the bodies of large herbivores. The relationship
between the birds and the ticks is an example of
a. mutualism.
b. parasitism.
c. commensalism.
d. predator–prey interaction.
e. amensalism.
21. Which of the following is an example of density-independent population regulation?
a. A contagious disease sweeps through a dense population of lemmings.
b. Jaegers, which are predators of lemmings, search widely for places where lemmings
are abundant and concentrate their hunting in those areas.
c. An outbreak of lemmings leads to a depletion of the food supply. As a result, lemmings
are underfed and produce few offspring.
d. When lemmings are abundant, arctic foxes switch from a primary diet of mice to a
primary diet of lemmings.
e. An early cold spell kills 80 percent of the lemmings in a particular area.
22. Which would be the most effective way to minimize a rat population in an alley?
a. Kill as many rats as possible by poisoning and trapping them.
b. Clean up the alley so that the rats have no garbage to feed on.
c. Lure the rats away to another site where they will be less harmful.
d. Search out and kill very young pre-reproductive rats.
e. Release cats into the alley.
23. The endosymbiosis hypothesis for the evolution of eukaryotic cells, which states that
modern mitochondria and chloroplasts descended from once free-living bacterial
ancestors that infected larger cells, may describe a very early example of
a. mutualism.
b. parasitism.
c. interspecific competition.
d. predation.
e. amensalism.
24. What is the type of ecological relationship that can involve members of either the
same or different species and harms both participants?
a. Mutualism
b. Parasitism
c. Competition
d. Predation
e. Amensalism
Short Essay:
25. For many thousands of years, Earth’s carrying capacity for humans was set at a low
level by food and water supplies and by disease. In the space below write a paragraph to
explain what caused the increase? Be specific and give examples. (6 Points)