Name ___________________________________ Date __________ Period __________ Chapter 11 Review Guide Biology II 1. What is genetic engineering (1 pt)? 2. In Cohen and Boyer’s experiment, to what kind of organism did they transfer a gene from a frog chromosome (1 pt)? 3. What is an efficient way to produce many copies of a specific DNA sequence (1 pt)? 4. What is gene cloning (1 pt)? 5. What are clones (in the cell sense) (1 pt)? 6. Using genetic engineering, have scientists been able to produce bacteria capable of making human proteins (1 pt)? 7. What is a plasmid (1 pt)? 8. What is a vector (1 pt)? 9. What is the function of DNA ligase in making recombinant DNA (1 pt)? 10. Before a foreign gene can be inserted into a plasmid, what must be done to that plasmid (1 pt)? 11. What is a restriction enzyme (1 pt)? 12. What type of molecule do restriction enzymes act upon (1 pt)? 13. What is the resulting DNA called when a DNA fragment is put into the DNA of a vector (1 pt)? 14. Is recombinant DNA made from splicing the DNA of 2 different species, 2 of the same species, or both (1 pt)? 15. DNA fragments cut by restriction can pair up and join with any other DNA fragments cut by the _________________ restriction enzyme (1 pt). 16. What is gel electrophoresis (1 pt)? 17. What 2 characteristics of DNA are used to separate DNA fragments during gel electrophoresis (2 pts)? 18. What are the 4 steps that must be followed in a genetic engineering experiment (4 pts)? 19. What is the purpose of adding tetracycline to a culture after cloning bacteria that have been exposed to recombinant DNA (1 pt)? 20. Explain how a harmless virus might be turned into a vaccine using genetic engineering (3 pts). 21. What is a probe (1 pt)? 22. What is a technique using radioactively labeled DNA to identify specific genes in a piece of DNA called (1 pt)? 23. Why do vaccines prepared by injecting killed or weakened pathogens carry some risk (1 pt)? 24. What is DNA fingerprinting useful in criminal investigations (1 pt)? 25. What is the entire collection of genes within the cells of a human called (1 pt)? 26. What is the goal of the Human Genome Project (1 pt)? 27. How are vaccines helpful in protecting against the possibility of future infection by a particular pathogen (1)? 28. How might we determine if 2 individuals are related (1 pt)? 29. What is the name of the protein produced by genetic engineering to treat diabetes (1 pt)? 30. Name and explain 3 different ways that genetic engineering can be used in agriculture (3 pts). 31. Have genetic engineers been able to develop crop plants that are resistant to weed-killers (1 pt)? 32. What would happen when glyphosate is sprayed on a field containing plants that contain the gene coding for resistance to gyphosate (1 pt)? 33. Can crops be made resistant to insects using genetic engineering (1 pt)? 34. When GH (growth hormone) is added to their food, what happens to dairy cow’s production of milk (1 pt)? 35. What was electric shock used for in the process of creating cloned sheep (1 pt)?