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Study Guide for Ancient World and World Beliefs
Muhammad founder of Islam
Islam religion founded by Muhammad; literally “to surrender”
Muslims followers of Islam
Qur’an sacred text of Islam, considered Allah’s direct revelation
Five Pillars of Islam obligations required of all Muslims
mosque name for the building where Muslims worship
jihad word that can be translated as “struggle for the faith” or “holy
war” and can also mean the struggle to defend the Muslim community
or convert people to Islam
caliphs title given to leaders of Islam after Muhammad, means
caliphate area ruled by a caliph
Umayyad a powerful clan from Mecca whose struggle to regain control
led to civil war
Sunnis Muslims who accepted the Umayyad caliph
Shia supporters of Muhammad’s cousin Ali, who refused to accept the
Umayyad caliph
Abbasid family that ruled Islam after the Umayyads lost control
calligraphy beautifully styled writing that is a distinctive feature of
Islamic art
minarets tall towers found on mosques from which the faithful were
called to prayer
Fertile Crescent region between the Mediterranean Sea and the
Persian Gulf
Mesopotamia Fertile Crescent area between the Tigris and Euphrates
ziggurat pyramid-shaped temple dedicated to a Sumerian city’s chief
city-state a political unit with its own government made of a city and its
polytheism the worship of many gods
dynasty a series of rulers from one family
cuneiform Sumerian writing
Sargon Akkadian ruler who was the first to create a permanent army
Hammurabi King of Babylon famous for his code of laws
Nebuchadnezzar II Chaldean king who rebuilt Babylon
Judaism the religion of the Hebrews
Torah most sacred text of Judaism
Abraham father of the Hebrew people
covenant a solemn agreement
patriarch ancestral “fathers”
Moses Hebrew leader who led his people out of Egypt
Exodus the journey of the Hebrew people out of Egypt, led by Moses
Diaspora the scattering of the Jews outside of Canaan
monotheism the belief in one God
subcontinent a large landmass that is part of a continent
monsoons seasonal winds that bring heavy rains and warm air or
cool, dry air
citadel fortress
Vedas sacred writings about Aryan history and society
rajas regional leaders in Vedic society who protected a group of
varnas social classes that divided Vedic society into four groups
castes divisions of varnas that determined what jobs one could hold
and whom a person could marry
Hinduism one of the world’s oldest religions, practiced by most people
in India today
reincarnation Hindu belief that the atman (soul) will be released from
the body after
death and later reborn in another; also called samsara
karma the sum effect of a person’s deeds and actions during life
moksha escape from the cycle of rebirth, considered by Hindus to be
the ultimate goal of
human existence
dharma set of spiritual duties and obligations for Hindus
yoga a series of physical and mental exercises that aid meditation
Jainism religion founded by Hindus who broke away because they
believed moksha could be achieved through giving up worldly goods
and controlling one’s actions
ahimsa nonviolence; idea that is central to Jain teaching
Buddhism religion whose followers seek enlightenment and an end to
human suffering
Buddha founder of Buddhism; translated as Enlightened One
Four Noble Truths beliefs described by Buddha that explain the
connections between life, desire, and suffering
Eightfold Path the way to find the Middle Way: right view, attitude,
speech, action,
livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration
nirvana a state of peaceful existence free from suffering
Study Guide for World History 1800s-1900s
Industrial Revolution the time period when power-driven machinery
was developed
enclosure movement the combining of many small farms by wealthy
factors of production the essential elements that a nation needs for
economic success
cottage industry a craft occupation performed in the home
factory a building that housed machine-driven industry
industrialization the process of changing to power-driven machinery
Jethro Tull gentleman farmer who invented the seed drill for planting
Richard Arkwright inventor of the spinning frame, which spun
stronger, thinner thread
James Watt British inventor who made steam engines faster and more
Robert Fulton developed and operated the steamship Clermont on
the Hudson River
labor union organizations representing workers' interests
strike work stoppages
mass production the system of manufacturing large numbers of
identical items
interchangeable parts identical machine-made parts
assembly line system in which workers stay in one place, adding
parts as items go by
laissez-faire the idea that governments should not interfere in
Adam Smith the leading advocate of laissez-faire economics
Thomas Malthus thinker whose beliefs about poverty were used to
justify low wages
entrepreneur someone who starts a business
Andrew Carnegie industrialist who led the expansion of the American
steel industry
socialism the theory that society, not individuals, should own all
property and industry
Karl Marx German thinker who put forth a radical view of socialism
communism a system in which the government controls the economy
standard of living level of material comfort experienced by a group of
British East India Company British company created to control trade
between Britain, India, and East Asia, which ruled India in the name of
Great Britain
Sepoy Mutiny rebellion by Indian soldiers who fought in the British
army against their officers, set off by the introduction of a new type of
British rifle. New rifle used pork fat (disliked by Muslims) and beef fat
(disliked by Hindu)
Raj Hindi word for “rule”; term used for the era of British rule in India
Indian National Congress first Indian nationalist organization,
established in 1885 by English-speaking Indians, most of whom were
Muslim League organization that sought to protect the interests of
Indian Muslims
unequal treaties treaties that benefited European countries at the
expense of China
extraterritoriality the right of British citizens accused of crimes to be
tried in British courts
Taiping Rebellion movement led by Hong Xiuquan that opposed the
Qing dynasty after many believed it had lost the mandate of heaven
Boxer Rebellion rebellion by a secret society that began when its
members, also called the Harmonious Fists, started attacking
Sun Yixian radical who called for the overthrow of the Qing dynasty
and creation of a ruling national party and, eventually, democracy
Treaty of Kanagawa agreement between Japan and the United States
in 1854 that allowed American ships to stop at two Japanese ports
Emperor Meiji Japanese emperor who took control after the shogun
was forced to step down in 1868, believed Japan needed to modernize
and reform
Sino-Japanese War war between Japan and China over control of
Korea in 1894
Suez Canal waterway connecting the Mediterranean and Red seas,
shortening the voyage from Europe to the Indian Ocean
Study Guide for WWI -WWII
Triple Alliance partnership that united Germany, Austria-Hungary, and
Triple Entente alliance between France, Russia, and Great Britain
Franz Ferdinand archduke of Austria-Hungary whose assassination
led to World War I
Gavrilo Princip young Serbian who assassinated Franz Ferdinand
and his wife Sophie
neutral taking no side in a conflict
Central Powers term for Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I
Allied Powers term for Great Britain, France, Russia, and Serbia in
Western Front series of trenches dug by both the Allied Powers and
Central Powers in northern France, resulting in a deadlock
trench warfare war fought from trenches
total war war that requires the use of all of society’s resources
propaganda information designed to influence people’s opinions
Battle of Verdun battle in which Germany tried to kill as many French
soldiers as possible, believing the French could not bear to see this
historic city captured
Gallipoli Campaign Allied effort to destroy the Central Powers’ guns
and forts that lined the Dardanelles
genocide deliberate destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group
trench warfare war fought from trenches
total war war that requires the use of all of society’s resources
propaganda information designed to influence people’s opinions
Battle of Verdun battle in which Germany tried to kill as many French
soldiers as possible, believing the French could not bear to see this
historic city captured
Gallipoli Campaign Allied effort to destroy the Central Powers’ guns
and forts that lined the Dardanelles
genocide the deliberate destruction of a racial, political, or cultural
Woodrow Wilson United States President during World War I
U-boats German submarines that threatened ships in the waters
around Great Britain
Zimmermann Note German diplomat’s secret message to Mexico
urging an attack on the United States
armistice truce
Fourteen Points Woodrow Wilson’s plan for world peace, proposed in
Treaty of Versailles treaty that ended World War I and punished
Germany severely
League of Nations organization created with the hope of ending future
mandates territories to be ruled by European powers
Balfour Declaration statement issued by Britain in 1917 favoring the
creation of a Jewish state in Palestine
Jiang Jieshi leader of the nationalist Guomindang party in China, he
was also known as Chiang Kai-Shek
Mao Zedong leader of the Communist party in China
Long March a 6,000 mile trek through China traveled by Communists
to find a safe place beyond Guomindang control
Amritsar Massacre 1919 incident in which British soldiers
opened fire on unarmed Indian demonstrators, killing 400 people
and convincing many Indians that British rule must end
Mohandas Gandhi leader of nonviolent movement in India
against British rule
Kemal Atatürk leader of the military effort to claim Anatolia for
ethnic Turks, which led to the establishment of the Republic of
credit an arrangement in which a purchaser borrows money from
a bank or other lender and agrees to pay it back over time
Black Tuesday October 29, 1929, a day when investors sold off
16 million shares of stock, leading to a massive stock market
Great Depression severe downturn in the American economy
that followed the 1929 stock market crash
Franklin Delano Roosevelt U.S. President elected in 1932 who
increased the government’s role in the economy and in the daily
lives of Americas
New Deal a government program that created jobs, spent more
money on welfare and other relief programs, and regulated
banking and the stock market
John Maynard Keynes British economist who believed
governments could limit or prevent economic downturns by
spending money even if this caused an unbalanced budget
Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act a 1930 act that placed heavy taxes on
goods imported to the United States in order to encourage
Americans to buy goods made in the United States
Final Solution deliberate, mass execution of Jews
ghettos confined areas within a city
concentration camps labor camps meant to hold the people
Hitler called enemies of the state
Holocaust campaign of mass murder that the Nazis waged
against the Jews
D-Day June 6, 1944, the day Allied forces invaded France on the
beaches of Normandy
V-E Day Victory in Europe Day, May 8, 1945, the day Allied
victory was declared
Battle of Iwo Jima brutal battle in which the Allies captured a
strategic island close to Japan
Battle of Okinawa Pacific battle that claimed 12,000 American
lives for an Allied victory
Harry S Truman U.S. President who used the atomic bomb
Hirohito Japanese emperor who surrendered to Allies
V-J Day August 15, 1945, the day Japan surrendered to the
Allies, ending World War II
Yalta Conference meeting held by the Allied nations to plan
postwar Europe
Potsdam Conference meeting of Allied leaders in which tension
between the Soviet Union and the other Allies surfaced
United Nations world organization meant to encourage
international cooperation and the prevention of war
Study Guide for WWII – Modern Era
Nuremberg trials trials at an Allied military court that brought several
dozen Nazi military leaders to justice for crimes committed during
World War II
Cold War a post-World War II era of open hostility and high tension
between the United States and the Soviet Union
iron curtain Winston Churchill’s term for the division of Europe
created by Soviet actions
Truman Doctrine U.S. pledge to provide economic and military aid to
oppose the spread of communism
Marshall Plan a massive program of U.S. economic aid to help
Western Europe make a rapid recovery from the war and remain
politically stable
containment a policy of resisting Soviet aggression to contain the
spread of communism
Berlin airlift a massive effort to supply West Berlin by air after the
Soviets blockaded it
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military alliance between
the United States, Canada, and Western Europe designed to counter
Soviet power in Europe
Warsaw Pact an alliance formed between the Soviet Union and the
Communist nations of Eastern Europe
hydrogen bomb an immensely destructive weapon powered by
nuclear fusion
deterrence the development of or maintenance of military power to
deter an attack
arms race a struggle between nations to gain an advantage in
Sputnik the world’s first satellite, a human-made object launched in
1957 by the Soviet Union that flies in orbit around the Earth
Bay of Pigs invasion unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961 by a
secretly trained force, which U.S. leaders believed would result in a
massive uprising to overthrow Fidel Castro
Cuban missile crisis a tense standoff between the United States and
the Soviet Union that occurred after the Soviets installed nuclear
missiles in Cuba
nonaligned nations countries that refused to support either side
during the Cold War and tried to promote the interest of poorer
détente reduced tension between the superpowers
Martin Luther King Jr. leader of a civil rights campaign that exposed
racial injustice and won reforms
counterculture a youth movement that rebelled against mainstream
American society
Solidarity a movement of Polish workers who united to protest against
the Communist government and Soviet control
Mikhail Gorbachev Soviet leader who came to power in 1985 and
made changes in the nation’s economy and government
glasnost “openness,” a willingness to discuss the problems of the
Soviet Union
perestroika “restructuring,” a concept for the reform of
the Soviet economic and political system
Boris Yeltsin leader of the republic of Russia who
favored more radical change than Gorbachev did
ethnic cleansing elimination of an ethnic group
through killing or forced emigration
Internet a system of networks that connects computers
around the world
Saddam Hussein dictator of Iraq who invaded
neighboring Kuwait in August 1990
Persian Gulf War war in which a UN-authorized
multinational force led by the United States forced the
Iraqi military to leave Kuwait
al Qaeda Islamist terrorist organization that launched a
series of attacks against U.S. targets
Osama bin Laden al Qaeda leader who aims to unite
Muslims and destroy the United States
Taliban Islamist government of Afghanistan that
supported and protected members of al Qaeda
Muhammad Ali Jinnah leader of the Muslim League
who believed India’s Muslims needed a separate nation
to protect their rights
partition division, such as the one that separated India
into Muslim and Hindi countries
Jawaharlal Nehru India’s first prime minister
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
(OPEC) an organization of Middle Eastern countries
that attempts to regulate oil production to maximize
Six-Day War 1967 war between Egypt and Israel. War
won by Israel
Yom Kippur War 1973 surprise attack by Egypt and
Syria against Israel to regain territory, named for the
Jewish holy day when the attack began. War won by
Israel. Led to OPEC retaliation against US and caused
oil/gas crisis.
Anwar Sadat Egyptian president in 1978 who declared
that Egypt wanted peace with Israel, later shot
Menachem Begin Israeli prime minister in 1978 who
signed peace agreement with Egypt
Camp David Accords 1978 peace agreement between
Egypt and Israel in which Egypt recognized Israel’s
right to exist and Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula to
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Shia religious leader
who inspired protests against Iran's shah in 1978; he
was named leader when Iran became an Islamic
republic. Held US hostages for 444 days.
globalization the process in which countries are linked through trade and culture
interdependence the relationship between countries that depend on each other for resources, goods, or services
multinational corporations large companies that operate in multiple countries
outsourcing practice of having work done elsewhere to cut costs or increase production
free trade exchange of goods among nations without trade barriers such as tariffs
popular culture traits that are common within a group of people, such as food, sports, music, and movies
cultural diffusion the spread of culture traits from one region to another
famine extreme shortage of food
epidemic an outbreak of a contagious disease that spreads quickly and affects many people
refugees people who leave their own country to find safety in another nation
global warming the rise in the surface temperature of the earth over time