Download introduction to biology – part 2

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I. Importance of Carbon- Although a cell is composed of __________ water most of the rest is carbon-based compounds.
A. Structure of Carbon
1. Atom # 6: ___ protons & ___electrons; ___ in first shell & ___ in second
2. has ___ valance electrons- so can make four covalent bonds
3. usually bonds with: ____________________________________________________________
4. can also form bonds w/other _________________ atoms
5. compounds with carbon-carbon bonds called organic
B. Macromolecules- macro=___________, so these are _________ molecules
1. Polymers
a. poly=__________
b. these are large molecules made up of _____________________ building blocks
2. Monomers
a. mono=________
b. are the building blocks or ______________ of polymers
3. Classes of macromolecules or also called Biomolecules
a. ___________________
b. ___________________
c. ___________________
d. ___________________
II. Carbohydrates
A. Elements: ______________, always a ______ ratio of H atoms to O atoms (2H:1O)
B. Monomer: monosaccharide
C. Function: immediate and stored ____________; building material
D. Where found in body: bloodstream, liver; cell walls of ____________________
E. Food source: _______________________
F. Examples:
1. Monosaccharides: (_______ sugar)
a. glucose (C6H12O6)- preferred energy molecule for most organism; including humans
b. galactose- one component of milk
c. fructose- found in some fruits
2. Disaccharides: _______ monosaccharides bonded together
a. sucrose- _______ sugar: glucose + fructose
b. lactose- ________ sugar: glucose + galactose
3. Polysaccharides: ________ monosaccharides bonded together; two groups
a. Storage Polysaccharides: long polymers of glucose; broken down for needed energy
 GlycogenStorage of glucose in _____________
Stored in ________________________
 StarchStorage of glucose in ___________
Humans ______ break down to glucose for energy
b. Structural Polysaccharides: used for building materials
 * cellulose
component of _________ cell walls
human _________ to break down
important source of _________ in our diet
 * Chitin
Component of __________ cell walls
Component of insect and other arthropod _______________
III. Lipids: (_________________________ compounds)
A. Elements: C, H, O, many more H than in a carb.
B. Monomer: glycerol & fatty acids
C. Function: energy storage; ________________; cushioning
D. Where found in body: cell membrane; innermost layer of skin; surrounding some organs
E. Food Source: ______________________________________________
F. Examples:
1. Fats & Oils
a. all have 3 fatty acid tails
b. fats _________ at room temperature
c. oils _________ at room temperature
d. ________________fats- no carbon-carbon double bonds
e. ________________fats- at least one carbon-carbon double bonds
f. ________________ fats linked to heart disease
2. Phospholipids
a. unique lipid
b. found in every living ______________________
3. Steroids
a. used for hormone production
b. used for animal cell structure
c. Ex. __________________
IV. Proteins
A. Elements: ______________________
B. Monomer: amino acids, only 20 different amino acids combine in different numbers, patterns, & arrangement
C. Function: support, structure, _____________________________ metabolism
D. Where found in body: muscles, hair, skin, enzymes
E. Food Source: _________________________________________
F. Examples:
1. Enzymes
a. ____________________________
b. trigger chemical reactions
c. could not maintain ____________________ without them
V. Nucleic Acids
A. Elements: _________________________
B. Monomer: _________________________
C. Function: genetic instructions & usable energy
D. Where found in body: nucleus of cells
E. Food Source: ____________
F. Examples:
1. DNAa. Deoxyribonucleic acid
b. contains the ____________ instructions for the cell
2. RNAa. Ribonucleic acid
b. ___________________ the instructions in DNA
3. ATPa. Adenosine triphosphate
b. provides _____________________________ for the cell