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1. What characteristics are true for all fungi?
2. What are the three ways of living fungi experience?
3. Fungus have filaments called ________________, a mass of which is called ______________.
What are these filaments for, and how is surface area important? If I look at a fungus, where is the
majority of it located?
4. Mycorrhizae is a specialized form of __________. How is mycorrhizae important? (Is it good or
5. Describe the important of each type of ploidy in the fungus life cycle. When is meiosis used in the
life cycle?
6. In plasmogamy, the __________ fuses of 2 mycelia to create 1 cell that’s __________________.
7. In karyogamy, the __________________ fuse to create 1 cell that’s ________________. What is
this cell called? ______________________
8. Each fungi phyla is characterized by ______________________________________.
9. What are the 3 fungal phyla and the characteristic(s) we should know?
10. What do sexual and asexual reproduction in fungi have in common? How is this commonality
11. What are 3 key differences between fungi and fungus-like protists?
12. What features are characteristic of all animals? True or false: All animals have tissues. True or
false: All animals reproduce sexually.
13. What is the order of early embryonic development? Important words to be used: zygote; blastula;
gastrulation; gastrula; blastopore; cleavage.
14. How is a coelom beneficial? True or False: coelomates, acoelomates and pseudocoelomates all
have mesoderm.
15. What are the 4 characteristics of animal body plan?
16. What is developmental biology?
17. What is a gastrovascular cavity?
18. What are the main characteristics of Porifera (think of the body plan)? What is the special cell
found only in Porifera and for what is it used? Do sponges ever use sexual reproduction?
19. What are the main characteristics of Cnidaria (think of the body plan)? What is the special cell
found only in Cnidaria and for what is it used?
20. What important ecosystem exists as a Cnidarian? What body form is it? How is it important?
LOPHOTROCHOZOANS—PLATYHELMINTHES (What do all lopho’s share in common?)
21. Platyhelminthes contains 4 classes. What is each class’s mode of life?
22. How do the organs of parasitic and the organs of free-living platyhelminths differ? Why are there
such differences??
23. T or F: Parasites have good reason to and often try to kill their hosts.
24. What is the significance of the final host of a parasite? It’s intermediate host(s)?
25. What class of Platyhelminthes causes schistosomiasis? What are the hosts for this disease?
26. To increase a parasite’s chance of being transmitted, a parasite can not only increase its
reproductive effort, but also do what?
27. The lancet liver fluke is part of which class and has what 3 hosts?
28. Cestodes, a.k.a. ___________________, are found in what type of animal? Where in these
animals? What are the 2 main parts of these cestodes, and what are they for?
29. The pork tapeworm is bad for humans how? How do humans get it?
30. All annelids have what characteristics (include circulartory system)?
31. Two adaptations in annelids are very well-developed. How are they important? Which adaptation
do they share with another class of organisms (and what’s the class)?
32. The ecological importance of earthworms is that they’re good for the ____________. How are
they good?
33. The largest animal phylum is ________________, while the 2nd largest is __________________.
34. Each mollusk has 5 parts. What are they? Are they the exact same for each species?
35. The most diverse (and largest) molluscan class is what? Their circulatory system is what? Their
mouths are modified into a ________________, used for what 2 types of eating? How is it used?
36. What are some common examples of bivalves? How are bivalves bad to other organisms?
37. Cephalopods use what type of lifestyle for eating? What modifications do they have for this
ECDYSOZOANS—NEMATODA (What do all ecdysozoans have in common?)
38. All nematodes are covered with a(n) ____________ and move how?
39. What are 3 ways in which Nematodes are important (one is a little specific)?
40. What causes a loss of $500 million/year for soybean farmers?
41. We discussed three specific nematode parasites. State how they’re contracted and what they do to
their host.
Cause of trichinosis:
Cause of elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis):
Guinea worm:
42. What is the most common parasite in humans? Where does it live most of its life? How do we
avoid getting it?
43. What is the most effective way to stop the life cycle of parasites?
44. What are the four characteristics that describe the incredibly successful arthropods? How are these
characteristics important to their success?
45. Insects have 3 major adaptations that are important for their success. What are those, and how do
these adaptations make them successful?
46. How do insects impact ecology and our economy?
47. Echinodermata includes species like what? They are considered ________________ symmetric,
but it doesn’t appear that way. How are they considered thus?
48. All chordates have what 4 characteristics? What are their functions? Do these 4 characters persist
throughout their life cycles?
49. What characteristics do vertebrates have that not all chordates do?
50. Certain vertebrates produce an amniotic egg. How is it different than other eggs? Why is it an
important adaptation? What three things do amniotic eggs have, and what are they used for?
51. What clade are birds found in? What important adaptation do birds have that others don’t, and how
is it beneficial?
52. What 4 characteristics do mammals share? Do all vertebrates have these 4?
53. We discussed different groups of mammals. What is the important distinction between these
54. True or False: Humans evolved from chimpanzees, based on the fact that only 1% of our DNA
sequence differs from that of chimps.