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Transcript
Quarter 4 English Finals Review Sheet
Vocabulary::Synonyms and Antonyms
Synonyms::Unit 7
-authorize: order, entitle, empower
-culprit: lawbreaker, wrongdoer
-dawdle: delay, loiter, dillydally
-dissect: examine
-expend: utilize, consumer, disburse
-fatality: casualty, mortality
-gullible: trusting, innocent, naïve, credulous
-illicit: illegal, unauthorized, forbidden
-immerse: dunk, engross
-inflammatory: provoking, incendiary, provocative
-memorandum: reminder
-pathetic: moving, distressing, pitiable, heartrending
-persevere: plug away, pursue, stick to it
-prevaricate: fib, stretch the truth, equivocate
-quash: suppress
-relish: pleasure, gusto, take delight in
-reminisce: remember, collect
-scour: scrub, search, comb
-tribute: praise, honor, homage, recognition, commendation, glorification, money, tax, levy
-writhe: twist, squirm, thrash
Antonyms::Unit 7
-authorize: forbid, ban, prohibit
-culprit: N/A
-dawdle: hurry, hasten, speed up, bustle
-dissect: sew together, fuse, weld
-expend: save, hoard
-fatality: injury
-gullible: suspicious, skeptical
-illicit: legal, lawful, permissible, aboveboard
-immerse: dredge up, pull out
-inflammatory: calming, soothing, lulling, quieting
-memorandum: N/A
-pathetic: funny, hilarious, frightening
-persevere: give up, despair, throw in the towel, quit
-prevaricate: tell the truth
-quash: start, kindle, ignite, encourage
-relish: dislike, loathe, hate, despise
-reminisce: N/A
-scour: dirty, soil
-tribute: blame, criticism, reproach
-writhe: N/A
Synonyms::Unit 8
-affluence: opulence
-arrears: in default, in the red, late, overdue
-cascade: plunge, rush, tumble
-cringe: flinch, duck, cower, fawn
-crotchety: grumpy, grouchy, crabby, disagreeable
-format: layout, design
-immobile: fixed, stationary, unmoving, rooted
-impassable: closed, impenetrable
-innovation: novelty, modernization, new wrinkle
-jovial: jolly, cheerful, festive
-manacle: put in chains, fetter
-martial: military, hostile, bellicose
-minimum: least
-nimble: lively, keen, flexible
-onset: outset, commencement
-partition: divider, separation
-perishable: short-lived, fleeting
-retrieve: recover, regain fetch, remedy, rectify
-sinister: frightening, menacing, ominous
-taut: tight, strained, orderly, shipshape
Antonyms::Unit 8
-affluence: poverty, want, destitution, scarcity
-arrears: N/A
-cascade: drip, drop, trickle, ooze
-cringe: strut, swagger
-crotchety: sociable, friendly, agreeable, amiable
-format: N/A
-immobile: movable, portable, nimble, agile
-impassable: unblocked, clear, open, fir for through
-innovation: N/A
-jovial: gloomy, morose, melancholy, cheerless
-manacle: unchain, set free, emancipate, release
-martial: peace-loving, peaceable, pacific, unwarlike
-minimum: maximum, highest, most
-nimble: awkward, clumsy, stiff, inflexible
-onset: conclusion, close, end
-partition: join, combine, consolidate, merge
-perishable: long-lasting, durable, undying, permanent
-retrieve: N/A
-sinister: cheering, encouraging, reassuring, benign
-taut: loose, slack, drooping, messy, sloppy
Synonyms::Unit 9
-avenge: retaliate
-cede: yield, deliver up, transfer
-deluge: swamp, inundate
-discretion: prudence, tact, discrimination
-giddy: faint, frivolous, flighty
-impact: collision, blow, effect
-intimidate: bully, browbeat, hector
-liberate: untie, unshackle
-logical: rational, sensible
-misrepresent: distort, falsify, twist, exaggerate
-optional: voluntary, elective, discretionary
-outright: total, out-and-out, utterly, instantly
-rendezvous: date, appointment, assignation
-rotund: round, plump, chubby, portly, sonorous
-saunter: ramble, amble, promenade
-sluggish: unhurried, lethargic, leisurely
-subordinate: assistant, helper
-tint: shade, tone, color, stain
-variable: fluctuating, shifting, inconstant
-verge: brink, threshold, edge
Antonyms: Unit 9
-avenge: N/A
-cede: N/A
-deluge: trickle, dribble
-discretion: N/A
-giddy: levelheaded, serious, earnest, sober
-impact: N/A
-intimidate: N/A
-liberate: imprison, fetter, shackle, bind
-logical: absurd, ridiculous, unsound, preposterous
-misrepresent: N/A
-optional: required, mandatory, compulsory
-outright: partial, incomplete, by degrees
-rendezvous: N/A
-rotund: thin, angular, lean, lanky, skinny, gaunt
-saunter: speed, race, hurry, dash, scurry, rush
-sluggish: active, energetic, lively, rapid, brisk
-subordinate: superior, higher, chief, supervisor
-tint: bleach, whiten
-variable: constant, unchanging, steady
-verge: N/A
Synonyms::Unit 10
-abominable: hateful, despicable, loathsome
-bumbling: clumsy, stumbling
-consequence: outcome, significance
-delude: trick, hoodwink
-dole: ration, allot, distribute, handout
-engulf: envelop, encompass, immerse
-foil: frustrate, thwart, counter, rapier
-formulate: define, articulate, frame, specify
-initiative: leadership, enterprise
-memento: remembrance, keepsake, souvenir, token
-nonconformist: maverick, individualist, bohemian
-null and void: canceled, invalid, repealed, abolished
-panorama: vista, overview
-posterity: N/A
-pry: snoop, meddle
-refurbish: remodel, renew, spruce up
-resourceful: inventive, ingenious, skillful
-rigorous: tough, trying, challenging, stringent
-subsequent: following, later, next, succeeding, ensuing
-unerring: sure, certain, unfailing
Antonyms::Unit 10
-abominable: praiseworthy, delightful, charming
-bumbling: forceful, effective, skillful, adroit
-consequence: cause, source
-delude: N/A
-dole: N/A
-engulf: N/A
-foil: aid, abet, assist, advance, promote
-formulate: N/A
-initiative: laziness, sloth, shiftlessness
-memento: N/A
-nonconformist: traditionalist, conventionalist, traditional, conventional, conservative
-null and void: in effect, binding, valid
-panorama: N/A
-posterity: ancestry, ancestors, forebears, the past
-pry: N/A
-refurbish: dilapidate, run down
-resourceful: uninventive, incompetent, dull-witted
-rigorous: easy, lax, indulgent, undemanding
-subsequent: previous, prior, preceding
-unerring: faulty, fallible, unreliable
Synonyms::Unit 11
-alias: pseudonym
-amble: saunter, ramble
-burly: strapping, hefty, beefy, brawny
-distort: disfigure, misshape, falsify
-dogged: untiring
-dumbfounded: speechless, stunned, flabbergasted
-extinct: died out, vanished
-fossil: relic
-grit: dirt, mettle
-inevitable: inescapable, fated
-ingrained: deep-seated, deep-rooted, indelible
-meteoric: brilliant, blazing
-parody: satire, travesty, lampoon, burlesque
-prevail: win, rule, reign, overcome, conquer
-rend: cleave, dismember, splinter, tear asunder
-replenish: refill, restock, refresh, restore
-rummage: delve into, sift through, poke around
-skimp: be stingy, scrimp, cut corners
-sleuth: investigator, gumshoe
-vandalism: willful destruction, malicious, defacement
Antonyms::Unit 11
-alias: real name, given name, legal name
-amble: gallop, dash, sprint, run, race, rush
-burly: weak, puny, delicate, frail
-distort: N/A
-dogged: wishy-washy, faltering, irresolute
-dumbfounded: unsurprised, expectant
-extinct: still alive, surviving, extant
-fossil: N/A
-grit: timidity, cowardice, faintheartedness
-inevitable: avoidable, escapable, preventable
-ingrained: superficial, shallow, skin-deep
-meteoric: slow, sluggish, gradual
-parody: N/A
-prevail: be defeated, go under, succumb
-rend: N/A
-replenish: empty, drain, deplete, sap
-rummage: N/A
-skimp: be extravagant, splurge, lavish
-sleuth: N/A
-vandalism: N/A
Synonyms::Unit 12
-abduct: seize, snatch
-ambiguous: vague, uncertain, unclear, equivocal
-balk: resist, hesitate, block
-compact: dense, compress
-confer: deliberate, award, bestow
-earmark: reserve, trait, attribute
-frigid: freezing, unresponsive
-implement: device, utensil, fulfill, accomplish, achieve, apply, carry out
-incalculable: countless, measureless
-indisputable: irrefutable, undeniable, incontestable, inarguable
-intensive: thoroughgoing, heightened, exhaustive
-maneuver: move, tactic, guide, manipulate
-sabotage: vandalize, cripple, subvert, destroy
-scant: inadequate, meager, skimpy, bare
-stealthy: sly, furtive
-strapping: sturdy, husky, brawny, athletic, hefty
-strident: piercing, grating
-thrive: flourish, blossom, prosper
-titanic: gigantic, huge, mighty, immense
-valiant: brave, bold, courageous, gallant, heroic
Antonyms::Unit 12
-abduct: N/A
-ambiguous: obvious, plain, clear, unequivocal
-balk: N/A
-compact: oversize, enormous, humongous, bulky
-confer: withdraw, take away, withhold, deny
-earmark: N/A
-frigid: hot, balmy, torrid, warm, friendly
-implement: N/A
-incalculable: measurable, countable, predictable
-indisputable: questionable, debatable, arguable
-intensive: relaxed, easygoing, laid-back
-maneuver: N/A
-sabotage: N/A
-scant: abundant, plentiful, profuse, excessive
-stealthy: open, direct, aboveboard, forthright
-strapping: weak, frail, fragile, delicate, puny
-strident: mellow, soothing, musical, honeyed
-thrive: wither, die, fade, fail
-titanic: tiny, miniature, diminutive, pint-size
-valiant: timid, cowardly, fainthearted, “chicken”
Grammar
Unit 14::Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections
Prepositions
-prepositions are words that indicate location. USUALLY, prepositions show the location in the
physical word. However, they can also show time.
-some of the common prepositions includes…
 under, over, after, before, inside, outside, on, in, next to, behind, infront, above,
across, around, during, toward, between, underneath, off, beneath
-a prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or
pronoun, which is called the object of the preposition.
-when a pronoun is the object of a preposition, use an object pronoun and not a subject pronoun.
-some of the object pronouns includes…
 me, us, you, him, her, it, them
-some of the subject pronouns includes…
 I, we, you, he, she, it, they
-prepositional phrases functioning as an adjective describes a noun or a pronoun
-prepositional phrases functioning as an adverb describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb
-tips for telling prepositions and adverbs apart…
 If the word is followed closely by a noun, the word in probably a preposition, and the
noun is its object
 If the word id not followed closely by a noun, then the word is probably an adverb
Conjunctions
-common conjunctions: and, or, but
-correlative conjunctions: either, or; neither, nor; both, and
Interjections
-expresses strong feeling
-some of the common interjections includes…
oh no…
hooray
great
phew
wow
well
oops
gee
Unit 15:: Subject-Verb Agreement
Subject Verb Agreement
Rules:
 A subject and its verb must agree in number. A singular noun subject takes a singular
verb, and a plural noun takes a plural verb
 A subject pronoun and its verb must also agree. Add an –s ending to verbs for the present
tense of she, he, and it
Locating the Subject
Rule:
 Sentences that begin with here or there can fool you. Note that here and there is never the
subject of the sentence. The subject will fall after the verb.
Agreement with Compound Subjects
Rules:
 A compound subject consists of two or more subjects that have the same verb. They verb
must agree in number with its compound subject. If the compound subject is joined by
and or by both…and, then the verb is plural.
 If the compound subject is joined by or, nor, either…or, neither…nor, the verb agrees in
number with the subject CLOSER to it.
Unit 18::Capitalization
-this chapter is pretty self-explanatory, so here are some of the rules…
 Capitalize the first word of every sentence
 Capitalize the first word of a direct quotation that is a complete sentence. A direct
quotation gives a speaker’s exact words
 When a quoted sentence is interrupted by explanatory words, such as she explained, do
not begin the second part of the sentence with a capital letter. When the second part of a
quotation is a new sentence, put a period after the interrupting expression and begin the
second part of the quotation with a capital letter.
 Do not capitalize an indirect quotation. An indirect quotation does not repeat a person’s
exact words and does not appear in quotation marks. It is often introduced by the word
that.
 Capitalize the first word in the salutation and closing of a letter. Capitalize the title and
name of the person addressed.
 Capitalize names and initials. (e.g. J.K. Rowling)
 Capitalize a title or an abbreviation of a title when it comes before a person’s name or
when it is used instead of a name. (e.g. General James Wolfe, Captain)
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Capitalize abbreviations of academic degrees. Capitalize Jr. and Dr. (e.g. Darshana
Hegde, Ph. D., Martin Luther King, Jr.)
Capitalize words that show family relationships when used as titles (e.g. Uncle Dan)
Do NOT capitalize words that show family relationships when they follow a possessive
noun or pronoun. (e.g. Danae’s aunt)
Always capitalize the pronoun I. (e.g. I always capitalize I.)
Capitalize the names of cities, counties, states, countries, and continents. (e.g. Shanghai,
China)
Capitalize the names of water and other geographical features. (e.g. Mississippi River,
Himalaya Mountains)
Capitalize the names of sections of country. (e.g. New England)
Capitalize compass points when they refer to a specific section of the country. (e.g. the
West Coast)
Do NOT capitalize compass points when they indicate directions. (e.g. south of Los
Angeles)
Capitalize the names of streets and highways. (e.g. Monroe Street)
Capitalize the names of clubs, organizations, businesses, institutions, and political parties.
(e.g. SMIC Private School, Boy Scouts)
Capitalize brand names but not the nouns following them. (e.g. Skippy peanut butter)
Capitalize the names of important historical events, periods of time, and documents. (e.g.
Vietnam War, Age of Renaissance, Bill of Rights)
Capitalize names of days of the week, months of the year, and holidays. Do not capitalize
names of the season. (e.g. Thursday, June, Christmas, summer)
Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all important words in the title of a book, play,
short story, poem, essay, article, film television series, song, magazine, newspaper, and
chapter of a book. (e.g. A Wrinkle in Time, Thomas and Friends, New York Times)
Capitalize the names of ethnic groups, nationalities, and languages. (e.g. Asian,
Singaporean, Spanish)
Unit 19:: Punctuation
-this unit is also pretty self-explanatory so here are some rules again…
 Use periods to end declarative or imperative sentences.
 Use a question mark to end an interrogative sentence.
 Use an exclamation mark to end an exclamatory sentence or after an interjection.
 Use commas to separate three or more items in a series.
 Use a comma to show a pause after an introductory word.
 Use a comma after two or more prepositional phrases at the beginning of a sentence.
 Use commas to set off words that interrupt the flow of though in a sentence.
 Use commas to set off names used in direct address.
 Use commas in a compound sentence.
 Use commas in the salutation and closing of friendly letters.
 Use commas to prevent misleading. (e.g. Let’s eat Grandpa!  Let’s eat, Grandpa!
Commas. They save lives :)
 Use commas before and after the year when it is used with both the month and the day in
a sentence. Do NOT use a comma if only the month and the year or the month and the
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day are given. (e.g. I was born on June 2, 1999, in the night. I was born on June 2. I was
born on June 1999)
Use commas before and after the name of a state or country when it is used with the name
of a city. (e.g. San Francisco, California. New York, United States)
Use comas to set off degrees. (e.g. Robert Alexander, Ph.D.-oh he hopes! :)
Use a comma/s to set of too when too is means also.(e.g. I like you, too!)
Use a comma/s to set of a direct quotation.
Use a semicolon to form a compound sentence when a conjunction such as and, but, or or
is not used.
Use a colon to introduce a list of items that ends a sentence. Never use a colon
immediately following a verb or a prepositions. Look for phrases like the following.
Use a hyphen to divide a word at the end of a line. Divides words accordingly to syllables.
Add hyphens to join parts of compound words and compound numbers.
Use quotation marks for the title of a short story, essay, poem, song, magazine or
newspaper article, or book chapter.
Use italics(underlining) to indentify the title of a book, film, television series, magazine,
or newspaper.
Use apostrophes when forming possessives of singular and plural nouns and of indefinite
pronouns. Do NOT use apostrophes in possessive pronouns. (e.g. dogs’, Kevin’s,
somebody’s, mine)
Use apostrophes in contractions. (e.g. didn’t)
Abbreviate a person’s title or any degrees following the name. (e.g. Dr. Seuss, Ph.D.)
Abbreviate certain organizations and government agencies, using capital letters with no
periods. (e.g. NASA)
A.M., P.M., B.C., and A.D.
Never abbreviate days and months in a sentence.
Spell out all numbers that can be written in one or two words in a sentence. Do NOT
spell out number that are more than two words. Spell out ordinal words like first.
For large numbers, spell out billion and million.
Use numerals to express dates, house numbers, amounts of money of more than two
words, and percentages but spell out the word percent.
Literature
Medusa’s Head
-skim through the story and be able to summarize events
 King Acrisios was told by an oracle that he will be killed by his own grandson.
 He locks up his daughter Danae so she will not meet any men and have any kids.
 Zeus helps and Danae gives birth to Perseus.
 Acrisios puts Danae and Perseus in a wooden chest and sets them out into the ocean.
 Dictys finds the chest. He and his brother, Polydectes, both falls in love with Danae.
 Polydectes believes Perseus is an obstacle for him to marry Danae. So he gives Perseus a
mission to cuts off Medusa’s head.
 Athena gives Perseus instructions to how to cut off Medusa’s head.
 Perseus visit the Sister Phorcides first and tricks them into telling him how to get to the
nymphs.


Perseus finds the nymphs and they give him tools to help cut of Medusa’s head.
Using the tools, he successfully cuts of Medusa’s head and on his way back, helps
unchain Andromeda and marries her.
 He heads back to Polydectes and turned Polydectes into a stone.
 Perseus and Danae travel back to Greece and in an athletic event, kills Acrisios with a
discus.
-Gods: Apollo, Zeus, Hermes, Nereus, and Poseidon
Goddesses: Athena
Kings: Acrisios, Polydectes, Cepheus
Queens: Cassiopeia
Princesses: Danae, Andromeda
Brother of Kings: Proitos, Dictys
Son of a human and god: Perseus
Groups of sisters: Gorgons, Phorcides
-theme or lesson: fate cannot be changed
Baucis and Philemon
-skim through the story and be able to summarize events
 Zeus and Hermes disguised themselves has mortals and wanted to see how hospitable the
people were
 Neither the rich or the poor wanted to offer them their house for them to stay over night
 Until a poor couple offered
 They brought out their best delicacies and did not hesitate giving them anything
 Zeus and Hermes were moved by this old couple and revealed who they really were
 They asked the old couple if they needed anything
 The old couple asked for the house to become a temple where they can worships the God
and for that they could die together.
 The Gods granted them the wishes and the old couple turned into two trees that
intervened when they died.
-Gods: Zeus and Hermes
Mortal: Baucis and Philemon
- lesson: “What goes around, comes around.”
Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves
-skim through the story and be able to summarize events
 “One day Ali Baba is at work collecting and cutting firewood in the forest, and he
happens to overhear a group of forty thieves visiting their magical treasure cave.”
 “When the thieves are gone, Ali Baba enters the cave himself, and takes some of the
treasure home.”
 “Cassim, his brother” finds out about the secret and goes to the cave and enters using the
magic words “Open Sesame”, but in his greed and excitement over the treasures forgets
the magic words to get back out again.”
 “The thieves find him there, and cuts him into six pieces.”
 “Ali Baba brings the body home, where he gives Morgiana the task of making others
believe that Cassim has died a natural death.”

“She finds an old tailor whom she pays, blindfolds, and leads to the house. There,
overnight, the tailor stitches the pieces of Cassim's body back together, so that no one
will be suspicious.”
 “The thieves, finding the body gone, realize that yet another person must know their
secret, and set out to track him down.”
 “One of the thieves goes down to the town and comes across the tailor, who mentions
that he has just sewn a dead man's body back together. The thief asks the tailor to lead the
way to the house where he sewed the body back together. The tailor traces back to the
house and the thief marks the door with a symbol.”
 Clever Morgiana realizes the mark must be a trap, and marks every other door on the
street with the same symbol and the thieves could not identify which house it was, and
the messenger was killed.
 Another thieve tries again using the same method, but clever Morgiana still manages to
trick the thieves once again, and the messenger was also killed.
 “The chief of the thieves pretends to be an oil merchant in need of Ali Baba's hospitality,
bringing with him mules loaded with thirty-eight oil jars, one filled with oil, the other
thirty-seven hiding the other remaining thieves.”
 “Once Ali Baba is asleep, the thieves plan to kill him.”
 Again, Morgiana discovers and foils the plan, killing the thirty-seven thieves in their oil
jars by pouring boiling oil on them.”
 “When their leader comes to call his men, he discovers that they are dead, and escapes.”
 “For revenge, befriends Ali Baba's son and is invited to dinner at Ali Baba's house.
 “The thief is recognized by Morgiana, who performs a dance with a dagger for the diners
and plunges it into the heart of the thief when he is off his guard.”
 “Ali Baba is at first angry with Morgiana, but when he finds out the thief tried to kill him,
he gives Morgiana her freedom and marries her to his son.”
 Ali Baba lives happily ever after and shares his wealth of the magical cave with others.
-main characters: the forty thieves, Ali Baba, Morgiana
-lesson: Do not be greedy of money, because something bad will happen to you.
The Secret Garden
- skim through the story and be able to summarize events
 Mary starts in the beginning of the story as a skinny, unhealthy, and tyrannical girl.
 Her parents and servants die of cholera, and she was sent to Misselthwaite to live with
her uncle in the moor.
 Mary discovers the Secret Garden of he aunt and helps to make it alive again with Dickon
 The environment she was in changed her view of life.
 She makes friends and grew healthier and fatter.
 She became an outgoing girl.
 She discovers Colin and helps make Colin a healthy boy, too.
-main characters: Mary, Dickon, Colin, Martha
-themes: Secrets and being neglected
Neighborhood Odes
-be able to know the main difference between poems and odes
-be able to know how to write odes