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End of Course Exam Review 2013-2014
 You are responsible to know all definitions for the key terms in Unit 1- 6 and for all the
Essential Questions in each unit. The following questions should help with some
background information that we have covered which should allow you to clearly answer
each Essential Question.
 Essential Questions and Key Terms from each unit can be found in the review folder on
the class website.
 Happy studying! 
The Mystery
1. Can a coroner perform an autopsy? Explain.
2. List 3 reasons why an autopsy would be done.
3. What does HIPAA stand for?
4. Why is confidentiality of patient information important?
5. Who should keep patient information confidential?
6. Is there ever a time when patient confidentiality should be broken? Give examples and
7. Confidentiality can be an important factor in many areas of our lives. What is one aspect
of your life, other than what has been discussed in this activity so far, where you
consider confidentiality to be very important?
The Structure of the Heart
8. Why is the heart considered to be a pump?
9. What are the structures that make up the human heart? How are these
structures organized? (main vessels, chambers and valves)
10. In most of the body the arteries carry oxygenated blood and the veins carry deoxygenated blood. The exception to this pattern is the heart. Explain how and why
specific arteries and veins of the heart are different from the pattern seen in the rest of
the body.
11. What is the pathway blood takes as it passes through the heart? Draw and label or use
a flow map to show the pathway. Use the drawings you made in the heart unit to study
12. What are two differences you see when comparing the four chambers of the heart?
The Heart at Work
13. What are two causes of blood pressure changes that
might occur in a person within a given day?
14. Why is it important to understand causes of blood
pressure changes?
15. What does an EKG tell us? (What is happening during each wave complex or interval?)
Explain using the diagram below as a reference.
16. What is the general composition of human blood?
17. What are the characteristics and function of platelets?
18. Why are more RBCs needed in blood than WBCs?
19. What are the characteristics and functions of white blood cells?
20. In what ways does blood directly relate to other human body tissues and systems?
21. Suggest a reason why is it advantageous for red cells to have a round structure with a
dimple in the middle?
22. Give one example of how either red or white blood cells have a direct impact on a body
system other than the cardiovascular system.
23. At higher altitudes there is less oxygen in the air. How might the composition of blood in
people living in these higher altitudes differ from the blood in people living at sea level?
What’s in Food?
24. What are the nutrients identified on food labels?
25. What is the basic building block for all matter?
26. What is the role of a chemical bond in energy transfers?
Food as Nutrients
27. What types of foods supply carbohydrates, proteins and lipids?
28. What are the main structural components of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids? (basic
building blocks)
29. How do carbohydrates, proteins and lipids differ in structure and function?
30. Both glucose and starch are considered carbohydrates. Why are two separate test
procedures and indicators necessary?
31. Are all fats the same? Explain.
32. What is the difference between saturated and
unsaturated fats?
33. What are the main functions of fats?
34. Why are unsaturated fats considered to be healthier than saturated ones?
35. Fats composed of three saturated fatty acids are generally solids at room temperature;
fats composed of one or more unsaturated fatty acids are generally liquids. Explain how
the structures of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids may determine whether or not
the fats are solids at room temperature.
36. How does the shape of a lipid molecule change when a
double bond is placed between two carbon atoms?
37. Explain why fats are classified as saturated,
monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated.
38. Why do you think pharmaceutical companies are developing so many cholesterol
lowering products?
The Diabetes Connection
39. What is a feedback mechanism? Give an example.
40. Explain how feedback loops allow the body to maintain homeostasis, and may allow it to
conserve energy.
41. Why is having too much sugar in blood bad?
42. What might happen to cells that are exposed to high concentrations of sugar?
43. Explain why the following statement is considered a scientific fact: Insulin is one of the
most important proteins in maintaining homeostasis in the human body.
44. What is the role of insulin in our body? How does insulin accomplish its job?
45. What are the long term side effects a person could develop if that person’s blood sugar
is not properly controlled?
46. When a person is diagnosed with diabetes, what changes would he or she have to
make in his or her lifestyle and diet?
Life with Diabetes
47. How do the lives of diabetics differ from people without the disorder?
What Is Sickle Cell Disease?
48. How do cells get the oxygen they need for energy
49. What do normal red blood cells look like when placed
under a microscope?
50. What effect does the altered shape of a sickled red blood
cell have on the health of the individual?
51. Would the normal or the sickle cells be better at transporting oxygen?
52. What is the difference between someone having the sickle cell trait and having sickle
cell anemia?
53. What are the signs and symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia?
54. What are the treatments for Sickle Cell Anemia?
What Causes Sickle Cell Disease?
55. Did each of the cell spreads made from the HeLa cells have the same number of
56. Why do all the normal cells in the human body have the same number of
57. How are pedigrees used to track diseases?
58. If one parent of a child is a carrier of the sickle cell gene and the other has the disease,
what is the probability that they would have a child with Sickle Cell Disease? (use a
Punnett Square to show your work)
59. Why does sickle cell disease run in families, yet is not present in every generation?
60. How are diseases inherited from parents?
61. How does someone get sickle cell disease?
62. What is a mutation?
63. Can someone be a carrier of a dominant disorder and not have the disease? Explain.
64. Explain why there are individuals in generation I and III affected by the disorder and
none in generation II. (dark shading = affected)
How Do Chromosomes Carry Information?
65. DNA has two strands. If the sequence of nucleotides of one strand was known, is it
possible to use that information to determine the sequence of the second strand?
Explain your reasoning for your response.
66. Which nucleotides always pair together?
67. Does every cell in an organism have the same DNA?
68. What is the relationship between chromosomes, DNA, and genes?
What Is the DNA Code?
69. How does the sequence of nucleotides in DNA determine
the sequence of amino acids in a protein?
70. What determines the shape of a protein?
71. What is hydrophobicity?
72. If the DNA code is changed, does the shape of a protein change?
73. What is the connection between genes and proteins?
Mistakes Happen
74. How is sickle cell hemoglobin different from normal hemoglobin?
75. Why are there two of each chromosome in a normal karyotype?
76. Which atoms in all of the amino acids form the “amino” portion of the molecule?
77. Which atoms in all of the amino acids form the “acid” portion of the molecule?
Molecular Biological Techniques for Diagnosing Disease
78. How do crime scene investigators get enough DNA evidence from a single drop of
79. Can genetic diseases or disorders be diagnosed using a small blood or saliva sample
from a patient?
80. What is PCR?
81. Why are DNA tests on television programs and movies shown as patterns of stripes or
bands on film or in gels?
82. What is gel electrophoresis and how are the results interpreted?
83. Why do restriction enzymes cut at specific DNA sequences and different enzymes cut at
different sequences?
84. Why did the DNA migrate to the positive pole of the electrophoresis chamber? In your
response, discuss the chemical structure of DNA.
85. The gel above contains a standard DNA ladder, a sample from a crime scene and
samples from three suspects. Which suspect’s DNA matches the sample found at the
crime scene? How do you know?
What Is Cholesterol?
86. What are LDL and HDL?
87. What is the main function of cholesterol in the body?
88. Why are there so many drugs available to lower cholesterol or LDL?
89. How are LDL, HDL, and cholesterol related to heart disease?
90. What are bacteria?
91. Do all bacteria cause disease? Explain.
92. How big are bacteria compared to a human cell?
93. How do bacteria differ from one another? (discuss shape)
94. How do scientists and doctors tell one bacteria from another? (What techniques might
they use?)
95. How do bacteria reproduce?
96. What are some examples of Gram positive bacteria?
97. What are some examples of Gram negative bacteria?
98. How does Gram staining work? What is happening as each reagent is used? List the
correct name of each reagent.
100.What color are Gram positive bacteria? What color are Gram negative bacteria?
101.How is the cell structure of Gram positive bacteria different from Gram negative
99. Name a common disease that is caused by bacteria.
How are bacterial infections treated?
What can you do to keep from getting a cold or the flu?
What is the difference between sterile and clean?
Are all infectious diseases spread the same way? Explain.
What are examples of ways to prevent infectious diseases?
Legionnaires’’ disease is a type of pneumonia caused by an infection with the
bacterium, Legionella. If an epidemiologist discovered that five stricken people in a
community recently purchased potting soil from a local store, how would a
microbiologist isolate a sample of the responsible bacterium? Be sure to mention
specific procedures, techniques and materials that would be necessary.
Quarantine is a separation of individuals who have been exposed to an infectious
disease for a period of time to see if they develop symptoms. It has been used
throughout human history to attempt to control infectious diseases, such as leprosy.
AIDS patients have never been quarantined. Should they have been when the
disease first became known? State your position on this question and explain why or
why not. Make sure to use scientific reasoning to defend your position.
Medical Interventions
107. Define medical intervention?
What types of medical interventions are available to treat diseases?
How do medical personnel decide on the best treatment for a patient?
How have advances in technology changed the availability of medical interventions?