CHAPTER 8 CELLULAR REPRODUCTION STUDY GUIDE 1. Chromosomes are Rod Shaped structures made of _________________ and ____________________. 2. The Cell Theory states: "_______________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________". 3. During ___________________________________, the cytoplasm of a cell and its organelles separate into two New ________________________________________ ______________________________. 4. Cytokinesis proceeds differently in animal and plant cells. In animal cells, the cytoplasm divides when a _______________ called the ________________ _________________ forms through the middle of the parent cell. In a plant cell, the material form a ______________ ____________ and __________________ gather and fuse along the equator or middle of the cell. 5. The term cleavage furrow refers to _______________________________________ ________________________________________________. 6. The exchange of genes between pairs of homologous chromosomes is called _____________________ ___________________________ and Only occurs during __________________________________ of meiosis. 7. What equally divides chromatids between offspring cells _________________ ____________________. 8. Two of the 46 human chromosomes are called _______________ _________________________, all others (44) are called _________________________. 9. The production of eggs is called ____________________________. 10. What structure not found in animal cells forms along the midline of a dividing plant cell? _________________________ ____________________________. 11. Following replication of its DNA, each chromosome contains two _______________________________, which are attached to each other by a _________________________________________. 12. A picture of a cell's chromosomes is called a ________________________________________________. 13. Chromosomes that are not involved in sex determination are called ___________________________________. 14. _____________________________________________ is the process by which bacteria split ______________________________ into two identical organisms. 15. How many chromosomes are in the body cell of an organism that has a haploid number of 8? _____________ 16. The sequence of events that occurs in a cell from one mitotic division to the next is called the ____________________________________ ________________________________. 17. Any cell that contains two complete sets of chromosomes is called a _____________________ ______________. 18. Collectively, the time spent in G1 + S + G2 is called __________________________________. 19. "Cables" made of microtubules that extend from the poles of a cell to the centromeres during cell division are called ____________________________________________________. 20. In mitosis, anaphase follows ________________________________________. 21. Chromosomes coil up into short, fat rods during ________________________________________. 22. During cell division, plant cells from a new ______________________________________ in the center of the cell. 23. In eukaryotic cells, _________________________________________ takes place after the nucleus divides. 24. The division of the nucleus is called _____________________________________________. 25. The stage of meiosis during which homologues line up along the equator of the cell is called _____________________________________________________. 26. The process called ______________________________ guarantees that the number of chromosomes in gametes is half the number of chromosomes in body cells. 27. After a new nuclear membrane forms during _______________________________ of mitosis or meiosis, the ______________________________________ divides, resulting in two cells. 28. A reciprocal exchange of corresponding segments of DNA is called ______________________________________. 29. The time between cell division is called __________________________________________________. 30. The division of a prokaryotic cell into two offspring cells is called __________________________________ ____________________________. 31. What equally divides an animal cell into two offspring cells (daughter cells) ________________________ _______________________. 32. Each protein in an organisms DNA is coded for an individual __________________. 33. If an organism has 12 chromosomes in each body cell, how many chromosomes would you expect to find in the organism's gametes? _________________ 34. During which phase of meiosis do tetrads form? ___________________________ 35. The division of the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell is called _________________________________. 36. What event occurs during synapsis? ______________________ __________ ___________________________ _______________________. 37. During mitosis and meiosis, kinetochore fibers are thought to move __________________________________. 38. Histones are proteins that _______________ in the _______________ of __________________ in eukaryotic cells. 39. Eggs are _______________ than sperm, but are ______________________. 40. Sperm have ______________________ that help them swim to the ___________. 41. Gametes are formed by _______________________, a type of nuclear division in which the _____________________ number is ______________________ and is followed by ________________ ______________________. 42. In humans, specialized cells with _________ chromosomes, called ____________________ cells, undergo ________________ and ___________________________ to give rise to egg or sperm that have only _______ the chromosomes called ___________________. 43. Cells spend most of their lifetime in _____________________________________________. 44. A cell with only one complete set of chromosomes is called a ____________________ ______________. 45. When an egg and sperm join to produce a new individual, the process is called _________________________________. 46. The single cell that results from fertilization is called a ____________________. 47. Matching pairs of chromosomes in a diploid cell are called ___________________ _________________. 48. The phases in the life of a cell are called the _____________________ ____________________. 49. The cell cycle consists of _____________________, ______________________, and ____________________________. 50. ________________ is a series of ______________ in cell division during which the _____________________ of a cell divides into __________ ________________ with __________________ _____________ material. 51. Fertilization of the haploid sperm and egg results in the restoration of the ______________________ number of chromosomes in the zygote. 52. The chromosomes of a bacterium has a ____________________________________ shape. 53. Chromatids separate from each other during _________________________________________________. 54. Oogenesis produces one ___________________________ and three ___________________________________. 55. Crossing-over results in ____________________________________________________ by producing a new mixture of genetic material. 56. The random separation of homologous chromosomes is called _______________________________________ ________________________________________. 57. _________________ only occurs in ___________________________________________ cells. 58. The period of cell growth prior to division is called _____________________________________________. 59. Interphase consist of what three phases and describe each: a.____________ _____________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________. b.____________ _____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________. c.____________ _____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________. 60. The period during which DNA is copied ______________________. 61. DNA replication in a cell results in _________________ ____________________. 62. Replication is the process of copying _______________ ____________________. 63. Cell division is the process by which one _________ produces __________ new identical ______________________ _________________. 64. Cell division involves TWO Steps called __________________ _____________ ________________________. The steps are: a. ______________ ________________________________________________ b. ______________ ________________________________________________ 65. Step 1 of cell division is called ________________________, and step 2 is called ________________________________. 66. During ________________________ the cytoplasm of the cell divides into _______ new cells called _________________________ ____________________. 67. The steps or phases of Mitosis are ____________________, _________________, _____________________, and __________________________. 68. ________________ is the process by which a nucleus gives rise to ___________ __________________________ ____________________. 69. In anaphase, the sister Chromatids ________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________. 70. The cell is pinched into two and cytokinesis begins during ____________________. 71. The assembling of microtubules that make up the spindle fibers occurs during _______________________________. 72. During prophase the ___________________ and _________________ _____________________ disappear. 73. The center of the cell is called the _____________________ ________________. 74. ________________ condenses into chromosomes of two _________________ ____________________, joined together by the _____________________ during __________________________. 75. The production of offspring from one parent is called ________________________ ________________________. 76. During mitosis, centrioles are present only in _________________________ cells. 77. Most organisms are capable of combining ______________________ from two parents to produce ______________________. 78. The phase of mitosis during which chromosomes move to opposite poles is called ____________________________________. 79. When chromosomes of two parents combined to produce offspring, the process is known as _____________________ _____________________. 80. The chromosomes that combine during sexual reproduction are contained in special reproductive cells called _________________________. 81. In most organisms, ________________ can be either _____________ or _________________. 82. Spermatogenesis results in _______________ _______________ cells. 83. Each offspring cell produced by binary fission contains an ____________________ __________________ of the original cell's __________________________. 84. Crossing-over results in genetic recombination by permitting the ________________________ of genetic material between ____________________ and _______________________ chromosomes. 85. The cells resulting from meiosis in either males or females are called ___________________________________. 86. As a result of spermatogenesis, __________________ cells are produced that all can develop into ________________ cells. As a result of oogenesis, only ____________ cell(s) develop(s) into a(n) _________________ cell(s). 87. A protein disk that attaches two chromatids to each other in a chromosome is called a(n) ___________________________________________________. 88. The X and Y chromosomes are called the _________________________________________________________. 89. A spindle fiber is a specialized form of ________________________________________. 90. A _______________________________ is a segment of a DNA molecule that carries the instructions for producing a specific trait. 91. The DNA in eukaryotic cells is packaged into structures that are called __________________________________. 92. A fertilized egg cell is called a(n) _______________________________________________. 93. In humans, the genotype XX results in a ______________________________________________. TRUE OR FALSE The information needed by a cell to direct its activities and to determine its characteristics is contained in molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid. A karyotype is a type of gene. Each offspring cell that is produced by mitosis has half as many chromosomes as the original cell had. A male can produce sperm with either an X or Y chromosome. Each human somatic cell contains two copies of each chromosome for a total of 23 homologous chromosomes. Cell division in bacteria and eukaryotes takes place in precisely the same manner. Chromatids form while DNA copies itself before cell division. Cells spend most of their life time in interphase. Genes on chromosomes are the units if inheritance. While paired together during the second division of meiosis, two chromosomes may exchange segments of DNA. After mitosis and cytokinesis, each new cell has a complete set of the parent cells' chromosomes. During mitosis, centrioles are present in both animal cells and plant cells. Plant cells cannot undergo cell division because of their strong cell walls. Meiosis produces four nuclei that have different chromosome numbers from the parent cell. After the replication of a cell's chromatids, there are twice as many centromeres as there are chromosomes. Asexual reproduction occurs by meiosis. Binary fission is the division of a prokaryotic cell into two offspring cells. Cytokinesis only occurs during metaphase II Human sperm and egg cells have 23 chromosomes. Meiosis results in the formation of haploid cells from diploid cells. Crossing over is the exchange of alleles between homologous chromosomes. Two of the 46 human chromosomes are sex chromosomes. During telophase, a nuclear envelope surrounds each new set of chromosomes. Gametes are diploid so that when fertilization occurs, the resulting zygote will have the characteristic number of chromosomes for that species. Chromatids separate from each other during telophase. DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below as completely and as thoroughly as possible. Answer the question in essay form (not outline form), using complete sentences. You may use diagrams or pictures to supplement your answers, but a diagram or picture alone without appropriate discussion is inadequate. See me if you need Help, Have Problems or Questions or To Check Your Answers. 1. What is Cytokinesis? How is it different in plant and animal cells? 2. Explain the difference between Mitosis and Meiosis? 3. What is the Difference (Contrast) between Sex Chromosomes and Autosomes? 4. List Two ways that meiosis differs from mitosis. 5. Compare the structure of a prokaryotic chromosome with that of eukaryotic chromosomes. 6. What are homologous chromosomes? 7. Explain the Difference between a Haploid Cell and a Diploid Cell? 8. What is Your Diploid and Haploid Number? 9. What is DNA? What are histones? 10. What is independent assortment, and how does it affect the genetic makeup of offspring cells? 11. What are chromatids and what holds two chromatids together? 12. Describe how you could determine if a dividing cell is a prokaryote or an eukaryote. What structures would you look for? 13. Compare the products of mitosis with those of meiosis II. 14. Describe the events of binary fission and what kind of organisms would use this. 15. What is the cell cycle? 16. How do the products of spermatogenesis and oogenesis differ? 17. What is Interphase? What makes up and occurs during each part of Interphase? 18. What is Mitosis and In order, What are the four phases of Mitosis? 19. What are Kinetochore fibers and Polar fibers? What are their functions? 20. Explain Crossing-over, What is it? When does it occur? Why is it Important? 21. In what type of cell, Eukaryote, Prokaryote, or Both, does mitosis occur? __________________________________________. EXPLAIN WHY? 22. Explain the difference between Mitosis and Cytokinesis. 23. What is the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction? Which has evolutionary value? Why?