Download Understanding Virulent Systemic Feline Calicivirus

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Hospital-acquired infection wikipedia, lookup

Leptospirosis wikipedia, lookup

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis wikipedia, lookup

Schistosomiasis wikipedia, lookup

Coccidioidomycosis wikipedia, lookup

Oesophagostomum wikipedia, lookup

Meningococcal disease wikipedia, lookup

African trypanosomiasis wikipedia, lookup

Hepatitis C wikipedia, lookup

West Nile fever wikipedia, lookup

Hepatitis B wikipedia, lookup

Marburg virus disease wikipedia, lookup

Chickenpox wikipedia, lookup

Dirofilaria immitis wikipedia, lookup

Middle East respiratory syndrome wikipedia, lookup

Pandemic wikipedia, lookup

Onchocerciasis wikipedia, lookup

Orthohantavirus wikipedia, lookup

Ebola virus disease wikipedia, lookup

Henipavirus wikipedia, lookup

Eradication of infectious diseases wikipedia, lookup

Antiviral drug wikipedia, lookup

Herpes simplex virus wikipedia, lookup

Influenza A virus wikipedia, lookup

Norovirus wikipedia, lookup

Human cytomegalovirus wikipedia, lookup

Understanding Virulent Systemic Feline Calicivirus
The emerging hypervirulent strains of this virus can be particularly devastating to cats around the
world. Through careful research, doctors will have a better chance of successfully managing future
Patricia A. Pesavento, DVM, PhD
Kate F. Hurley, DVM, MPVM
hrough our involvement in the Shelter Animal Medicine Program at the University of
California-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, we have developed a deep appreciation for
the pathaogenic potential of emerging RNA viruses. RNA viruses that infect dogs and cats
include canine influenza virus, feline and canine coronaviruses, feline immunodeficiency virus, and
feline calicivirus (FCV). The newly emerging hypervirulent strains of FCV are potentially
devastating. We are working to understand these strains so we can protect the feline population.
FCV infection is common and can be detected in up to 50% of cats in multiple-cat households,
shelters, and catteries. In single-cat homes, the prevalence is lower (5% to 20%). FCV infection can
be clinically inapparent or associated with various acute and chronic disease syndromes. Most
commonly, field strains are associated with upper respiratory tract disease accompanied by
glossopharyngeal ulceration. The typical FCV disease course is mild, which belies the virus’s
potential. In the past 10 years, a spectrum of potentially severe clinical diseases has been
attributed to FCV infection. Collectively, the causative viruses of these severe cases are termed
hypervirulent FCV’s.
Compared with typical field strains, hypervirulent FCV strains are marked by aberrant
clinicopathologic features or an intensive disease course. Within the last 10 years, multiple
independent outbreaks of hypervirulent FCV strains have been described worldwide. Acute
hypervirulent FCV infections have been associated with pyrexia, depression, dyspnea, pneumonia,
shifting lameness, and abortion.
One hypervirulent form of FCV, virulent systemic FCV (VS-FCV), is particularly devastating.
More than eight outbreaks have been rcognized in the United States and Europe since it was first
described in 1998. Initially, these strains were termed hemorrhagic FCV’s, but the disseminated
intravascular coagulation and hemorrhage seen early on have not been a consistent feature of
subsequent outbreaks.
VS-FCV has a mortality rate of up to 50%. Clinical signs include high fever, facial and limb edema,
and ulceration with crusting of the pinnae, muzzle, and paw pads. Glossopharyngeal ulceration has
been present in some VS-FCV cases, and it is also common in field-strain caliciviral infections.
Death may occur in some cats with minimal clinical signs. Variable associated findings include
pancreatitis, hepatitis, and ulcerative rhinitis and sinusitis. Findings on blood chemistry panels are
nonspecific; changes can reflect either the repercussions of fever or variability in organ
involvement (e.g., hyperbilirubinemia, thrombocytopenia, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and increased
creatine kinase activity).
Several researchers, ourselves included, have collected and analyzed VS-FCV-type viruses
from a number of outbreaks. While infection from mild field strains appears to be limited to
epithelial cells of the oral cavity and respiratory tract, VS-FCV strans are found consistently in
both the epithelium and endothelium. Clinical signs reflect vascular damage, presumably as a direc
result of the expanded tissue tropism (e.g., edema, ulcers, multiple organ failure).
In most outbreaks, the index case animal originates from a multiple-cat environment. Fatal cases
occur in both vaccinated and unvaccinated kittens and cats, providing strong evidence that current
vaccines do not protect against these strains, although only a limited number challenge studies have
been attempted.
Generally, the incubation period is one to five days. A few cases have developed up to 12
days after the last known exposure. The systemic virus may be shed in feces; sloughed skin and
hair; and nasal, ocular, and oral secretions. Asympotomatic and mildly affected cats may transmit
fatal disease to other cats; therefore, all exposed cats should be considered a potential infectious
risk to naïve cats. VS-FCV has been carried between clinics and homes via contaminated fomites
(e.g., clothing or hands), infecting cats that were never directly exposed to a sick cat. In other
words, the disease can be transmitted throough minimal exposure. For example, a healthy cat
visiting a contaminated clinic for a simple weight check can develop fulminant disease a few days
later. Some cats have continued shedding the virus intermittently for at least four months after
clinical signs resolve. Although there are no documented cases where a fully recovered cat has
transmitted VS-FCV, the potential significance of chronic shedders and the factors that lead to
long-term persistence of infection are unknown.
Common tests used to detect all known FCV strains, including VS-FCV, include viral culture and
polymerase chain reaction. The virus is most often isolated from oropharyngeal swabs obtained
from an acutely affected cat. The caveat: Depending on the environment, any strain of FCV can be
present incidentally in some cats. Moreover, the mutation rates for FCV are so high that, by
approximation, a virus isolated from any one cat will be genetically different (in at least one
nucleotide) from a virus isolated from any other cat. This leaves us without a means of genetically
distinguishing hypervirulent strains from incidental or mild infection.
So how does a doctor know when a strain is hypervirulent? It depends on cumulative data
from ruling out other pathogens or disease states, detecting virus in serum and on oropharyngeal
swabs, isolating and sequencing an identical strain from more than one affected cat, and finding the
virus in situ through biopsy or necropsy. Practitioners must also consider history, clinical signs, and
examination findings.
Presently, we cannot anticipate new outbreaks of VS-FCV. Although this syndrome is relatively
uncommon compaired with mild strains, occasional outbreaks and focal clusters of VS-FCV have
been documented throughout the United States. In an attempt to defend cats, several veterinary
groups at universities are focusing their efforts toward understanding VS-FCV pathogenesis. We
hope future insights into microbial evolution will identify targets for new vaccines and thereby
improve disease management. Until then, some precautions practitioners can take include:
 Using a disinfectant effective against FCV, particularly when examining cats with
signs of upper respiratory infection or those recently exposed to a high-risk
 Handling cases of suspected FCV with careful isolation precautions, including
separate gowns, gloves, and equipment.
 Vaccinating against respiratory infection at the recommended intervals. Although
vaccination will not protect against all FCV strains, it will protect cats from severe
disease caused by some strains and help prevent false alarms regarding VS-FCV.
Fort Dodge Animal Health
©2006 Fort Dodge Animal Health
FDP C0458T
Tell all your family and friends about this deadly disease if they have cats. Get your cat vaccinated
against VS-FCV. This vaccine can save his/her life. As of now, CaliciVax is the only vaccine licensed
and proven effective against this killer. CaliciVax contains a VS-FCV strain and a traditional
calicivirus strain, providing broader protection for your cat. It has been proven safe on more than
700 client-owned cats.
Vaccinate before it is to late. Your cat should receive an initial vaccination followed by a booster
about 3 weeks later. The product label indicates your cat should be re-vaccinated on an annual
basis. Always consult with your veterinarian to determine the best vaccination protocol for your
Now, however, pet owners and veterinarians can take preventive action with a new vaccine that
protects against VS-FCV. CaliciVax™, from Fort Dodge Animal Health, is the only vaccine licensed
and proved effective against VS-FCV. It also protects against the traditional calicivirus, providing
broader protection.
Emerging Feline Disease Causes Tragic Loss For Cat Owner In Overland Park Kansas.