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Unit 4 Biology Human Evolution Part I Guiding Questions 1. 2. How many living species constitute the order Primates? Why do we study the characteristics of present day primates? 3. 4. What is a primate? What are some of the groups of living primates? 5. 6. What is special about the hands and feet of a primate? What is special about the vision of primates? 7. 8. 9. How does the brain size relative to body size of primates compare to other mammals? What behaviour distinguishes primates from many other mammals? How does the gestation period of primates compare to other mammals? 10. 11. 12. What are hominoids? Who else belongs to the superfamily Hominoidea? What features are common to all hominoids? 13. 14. 15. What taxonomic group to humans belong to? Are extinct human ancestors hominins? What are the anatomical features and habits of hominins? 16. What are the current definitions of hominin versus hominid? 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. How have the times of divergence of various primate groups been inferred? When did the prosimians diverge? When did the old world and new world monkeys diverge? When did the ape line diverge? From which line did humans diverge? 22. 23. Do scientists believe that humans evolved from chimpanzees or gorillas? Why did humans and apes diverge from a common ancestor? 24. 26. When does molecular clock data suggest that the ‘human line’ diverged from the African ape line? Why is there not universal agreement on the precise evolutionary history of the human species? What is there agreement about when considering evolution of the human line? 27. What are some human characteristics compared to other primates? 28. What were the selection factors for bipedalism? 29. What were the selection factors for nakedness? 30. What are some of the anatomical adaptations for bipedalism? 31. How does the position of the foramen magnum allow us to hypothesize on whether a prospective hominin fossil belonged to a bipedal individual? 32. 33. What was the view of human evolution in the 1960s? Is it supported by fossil evidence? 25. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. What is the current view of human evolution? What occurred during the 1st radiation? What occurred during the 2nd radiation? What happened during the 3rd radiation? How is the final radiation different to the previous three? 39. 40. 41. What are the major groups of readily accepted hominin ancestors? What are some of the newer proposed groups of hominin ancestors? Which ancestors are accepted to be in the line that is ancestral to the human species in the genus Homo? 42. 43. What is the estimated age of Sahelanthropus? What is the estimated brain size of Sahelanthropus? 44. 45. What is the estimated age of Orrorin tugenesis? What is interesting/unusual about the teeth of Orrorin tugenesis? 46. 47. What is the estimated age of Kenyathropus? What is the estimated brain size of Kenyathropus? 48. What is the estimated age of Ardipithecus? 49. 50. 51. What is the time period of the genus Australopithecus? What was the brain size of members of the genus Australopithecus? What was the average height of members of the genus Australopithecus? 52. What were the names of the three identified species of Australopithecus? 53. 54. 55. What is the time period of the genus Paranthropus? What was the brain size of members of the genus Paranthropus? What was the average height of members of the genus Paranthropus? 56. What were the names of the three identified species of Paranthropus? 57. 58. 59. 60. Why is the Homo genus separated from other earlier hominins? When did the genus Homo arise? What are some of the characteristics of this genus? How many species within the genus Homo are recognised at this stage? 61. 62. 63. 64. What is the estimated age of Homo habilis? What is the brain size of Homo habilis? What is the height of Homo habilis? Why was this species named ‘habilis’? 65. 66. 67. 68. What is the estimated age of Homo rudolfensis? What is the brain size of Homo rudolfensis? What is the height of Homo rudolfensis? Why is this species also referred to as Homo habilis (large variant)? 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. What is the estimated age of Homo erectus/ergaster? What is the brain size of Homo erectus/ergaster? What is the height of Homo erectus/ergaster? Where have Homo erectus/ergaster been identified? What is there evidence that Homo erectus/ergaster used? 74. 75. 76. 77. What is the estimated age of Homo heidelbergensis? What is the brain size of Homo heidelbergensis? What is the height of Homo heidelbergensis? Where has Homo heidelbergensis been identified? 78. What is anatomical relationship between Homo heidelbergensis and the earlier Homo erectus/ergaster ? 79. 80. 81. 82. What is the estimated age of Homo neanderthalensis? What is the brain size of Homo neanderthalensis? What is the height of Homo neanderthalensis? Where has Homo neanderthalensis been identified? 83. 84. How does the strength of Neanderthals compare to modern standards? What is unique about Neanderthal culture? 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. What is the estimated age of Homo floresiensis? What is the brain size of Homo floresiensis? What is the height of Homo floresiensis? Where has Homo floresiensis been identified? What controversy surrounds this species? 90. 91. What does archaeological evidence tell us about Homo floresiensis? What does geology suggest about Homo floresiensis? 92. 93. How does the time period of Homo floresiensis compare with that of Homo sapiens? What are some of the stories surrounding Homo floresiensis? 94. 95. 96. 97. What is the estimated age of Homo sapiens sapiens? What is the brain size of Homo sapiens sapiens? What is the height of Homo sapiens sapiens? Where has Homo sapiens sapiens been identified? 98. 99. 100. 101. What changes are apparent in modern humans compared to Mesolithic humans? What changes are apparent in modern humans compared to Upper Paleolithic humans? Why has selection for smaller tooth size occurred? What happened to tool kits with the arrival of Cro-Magnon culture? 102. 103. 104. What are the two main theories concerning the origin of modern humans? What are the key features of the Out-of-Africa hypothesis? What are the key features of the Multiregional hypothesis? 105. What do mtDNA and Y chromosome studies tell us? 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. What is special about mitochondrial DNA? How long ago did “Eve” live? Why is “Eve” the only woman to which we can trace mtDNA? What factors influenced the dispersal of modern humans? Where did early humans enter Australia from? What dates do fossil evidence give for this colonization? What role did the sea levels of the Pleistocene play in assisting migration of humans to Australia?