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Classical and Romantic Classical Music The classical period lasted from 1750 – 1790 approximately. This period saw many new developments including the Sonata and the symphony. The classical style is light in texture and moved away from the polyphony of the baroque period. Also important in this was the development of Sonata form, the use of modulation and developing the musical themes present. Below are some well-known composers of this period. Mozart Haydn Beethoven Instrumental music Concerto The concerto was a development of the concerto grosso. The concertino group of soloists became one soloist and was accompanied by orchestra. A piano concerto would consist of a piano accompanied by orchestra. Also introduced in the concerto was the cadenza. This is where the soloist gets the chance to show off. Symphony The symphony was a new introduction in this period. It is a piece of music written for an orchestra and generally it has 3 or 4 movements. String Quartet The string quartet consists of a group of 4 string players. These usually consist of 2 violins, 1 viola and 1 cello. Sonata The sonata developed from the baroque trio sonata. In a sonata, there is a solo instrument which is accompanied by piano. E.g A violin sonata would be for a Violin and piano. A piano sonata is for solo piano. Sonata Form This form was developed in the classical and was commonly used for sonatas and symphonies. The structure is shown below. Exposition Development Transition/Bridge Recapitulation Vocal Music Both the Opera and Mass were developed in the classical period with the addition of new parts. Mozart and Beethoven were known composers of this style. A new vocal style common in the classical vocal music was coloratura. The coloratura part is sung by a high soprano and is a decorated part with use of scales and ornaments. Romantic and late Romantic Period The romantic and late romantic periods lasted from 1790 to 1910. Further developments were made from the classical period. The classical period used much symmetry and structure however, the romantic period gave way to more emotion and expressiveness. The concerto and the symphony were developed in this period. Late Romantic music used a loose musical structure. It was very dramatic sounding and had a feeling of music for a film. Brass instruments were important and different kinds of percussion were used. Schubert Tchaikovsky Programme Music/Symphonic poem/Tone Poem This is a large scale work for orchestra and is based on a story or poem or event. It is usually very expressive and emotional. An example is ‘Danse Macabre’ by Saint Saens. This illustrates a poem by a French poet about Halloween. Nationalist Nationalist music is a piece of music that reflects the nationality of a country. This might use traditional folk melodies or instruments from that country. Vocal Lieder This is german for song. It is usually performed by a solo voice and is accompanied by a solo singer. Concepts which are important in Lieder are strophic, melismatic/syllabic and Ternary form. Opera The Opera again was developed in the Romantic period. Wagner was the composer to use a leitmotiv. This was when a particular theme represented a particular character in the Opera. Song Cycle This is a group of songs which are all of a related topic. For example they may all relate to the Sea.