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Chapter 9 – Launching A New Republic (1789 – 1800)
Find the information for the questions/charts in Chapter 9 and Section 1 of Chapter 10.
Precedents of the President
Explain the significance of the 3 precedents (example established for those who
follow in the future) below that were established by George Washington during his
tenure as the first U.S. president.
Two-Term Presidency – Washington graciously stepped down after two
terms, politely declining a third term, which set
the standard for future presidents.
Cabinet –Group of advisors who head various government departments
State –Jefferson, War-Knox, Treasury- Hamilton
Mr. President – Rather than take a title of royalty like “His Excellency”
or “His Highness,” GW simply wanted to be called
“Mr. President.”
Thee Man Steps Down (A Well-Deserved Retirement)
Neutrality – U.S. should remain neutral in foreign affairs and avoid
permanent alliances with foreign nations.
Political Parties – avoid political disagreements (or parties) because it
will divide the nation.
Hamilton – Man With A Plan
Describe the actions taken by Alexander Hamilton to create a financially strong country.
Payment of Debts
- Federal government should pay off the war debts of states
- Taxes like the Whiskey Tax would create revenue for the govt.
Tariffs (define a tariff and provide two purposes of a tariff)
- Tariff – tax on imported goods
1. brings in revenue to the government
2. promotes growth of American economy by protecting U.S. industry
National Bank – 3 things its creation would accomplish
1. safe place to keep government money ($)
2. ability to make loans to businesses and the government (interest)
3. could issue paper currency (bank notes)
Here Comes The Judge(s)
How did the establishment of an independent federal court system take place?
Federal Judiciary Act - describe it and what it provided
-Passed by Congress in 1789 and provided lower federal courts,
including U.S. District Courts & U.S. Courts of Appeals
-Supreme Court would have 6 justices (now 9), including a Chief Justice
Describe how Marbury v. Madison helped define the Supreme Court’s role in the
system of checks and balances and gave the Court its most significant power.
Marbury v. Madison – (1803)
-Established judicial review, which gave the Supreme Court the authority
to declare laws unconstitutional. This gives the Supreme Court the
final say in interpreting the Constitution.
What did the U.S. government gain from the Battle of Fallen Timbers and the Treaty
of Greenville?
At the Battle of Fallen Timbers, “Mad Anthony” Wayne defeated NA forces
And gained control of the Northwest Territory for the U.S. government.
Through the Treaty of Greenville, the NA’s ceded lands that are now most
of Ohio and parts of Indiana.
What led to the Whiskey Rebellion and why did Thee Man believe it was important to
crush it?
The Whiskey Rebellion was an armed uprising of farmers in Pennsylvania
who were protesting the whiskey tax in 1794. Washington felt it was
important to show that the executive and central government were capable
of maintaining order by a showing of force, if necessary.
Party Time!
By the beginning of the 19th century, two major U.S. political parties emerge, the
Federalists and Democratic-Republicans, who had very different ideologies on how the
government should be run. Find information for the charts to explain each party’s
philosophy for the topics below.
Support for England or France
- Favored British because they
were most important trading
partners of U.S. and French
began to seize U.S. ships
- Favored French because they
were our allies in the RevWar,
had same democratic ideals
so would be hypocritical to not do so
Strict or Loose Interpretation of the Constitution?
- Favored a loose, flexible
-Favored a strict, narrow
- The “elastic clause” of the
Constitution grants powers
to Congress that are not
clearly defined, like the
establishment of a National
-Powers of the federal govt.
should be clearly defined
in the Constitution – otherwise
the federal government could
become too powerful
Payment of Debt
- Federal govt. needed to show
- Many southern states, like Virginia,
it was responsible w/$, so it
opposed this plan because they had
should pay off all states’ debts
repaid their debts, so it was unfair
and debts under Articles of Conf.
and favored northern states
govt. to establish credibility to U.S.
citizens and foreign nations
- Also claimed it put too much power in
for future business with them
the hands of the federal govt.
Establishment of a National Bank
- “Elastic Clause” grants power
to create National Bank
- Opposed it because nothing in the
Constitution states that the federal govt.
has the authority to create a Nat’l Bank
- Safe place for govt. $
- Can loan $ to businesses & govt.
- Can issue bank notes (paper $)
– Smaller, local banks should handle
the nation’s $