* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Occupancy–abundance relationship wikipedia , lookup
Overexploitation wikipedia , lookup
Latitudinal gradients in species diversity wikipedia , lookup
Introduced species wikipedia , lookup
Island restoration wikipedia , lookup
Biodiversity action plan wikipedia , lookup
Endangered Species Act of 1973, 1982, 1985, and 1988 By: Nicole Wypychowski Period 6 • President Nixon signed the bill December 28, 1973 • ESA is administered by two federal agencies: United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). -NOAA handles marine species, and the FWS has responsibility over freshwater fish and all other species. • ESA was designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development” • ESA's primary goal = prevention of the extinction of imperiled plant and animals and to recover and maintain those populations by removing threats to their survival • To be considered for endangered or threatened listing on ESA, the species must meet one of five criteria: 1. There is the present or threatened destruction of its habitat. 2. An over utilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes. 3. The species is declining due to disease or predation. 4. There is an inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms. 5. There are other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence. Endangered Species Act Amendments • 1982 Amendment- Status of species were required to be made solely on the basis of biological information without any consideration of possible economic effects • 1985 Amendment- The Secretary must take steps to implement the Western Convention: developing personnel resources and programs, identifying species, habitats and cooperative measures to ensure that species of migrating birds will not become threatened, and identifying measures for the protection of wild plants. • 1988 Amendment- States that: Monitoring of candidate and recovered species was required, recovery plans will undergo public notice and review, requires five years of monitoring of species that have recovered, protection for endangered plants was extended to include destruction on federal land and other taking when it violates state law, and reports are required on the development and implementation of recovery plans and on the status of all species with plans.