Structure and Function of Thymosin β4
... In order to determine the structure and binding motif of the actin binding site in
thymosin β4, mutational analysis was performed. The binding motif observed in virtually
all of the β thymosins is 17LKKTET22 and, furthermore, the first three residues are also
found in many other actin binding protei ...
Sequence and Structure Classification of Kinases
... similarity of fold alone does not necessarily indicate a common ancestor. Furthermore, structural
information is much less readily available than
sequence information. Thus, the most effective
route to the identification of homologs and the
prediction of protein function is provided by the
Single-Amino Acid Substitutions Alter the Specificity and Affinity of
... A ConserVed Lys or Arg Residue in PDZ Domains of PSD95 Is a Key Determinant for Interaction with nNOS. PSD95 contains three tandem PDZ domains that have distinct
binding specificities. The second PDZ domain, which has
been shown to interact with the PDZ domain of nNOS (11,
12), has a Lys residue in ...
Life Inside a Microtubule
... a direct relationship between a given kinase and actin phosphorylation1.
For example, Ser and Tyr residues on actin are phosphorylated in response
to insulin via unknown kinases, leading to reduced DNAse I binding1 (Fig.
1). Likewise, activation of the p21-activated kinase PAK1 leads to actin
ELM Database Entry Data Collection - Eukaryotic Linear Motif
... http://elm.eu.org/elms/elmPages/DEG_SCF_TIR1_1.html#abstract). It should
be a biological abstract that reviews cellular systems in which the ELM(s)
belonging to this functional site work and includes appropriate references
(literature, PDB structures, related motifs in ELM,…).
Free form text of at l ...
Mechanistic Studies Of Drug Resistance Conferred By An ABC
... important modules in the C-terminal domain of DrrA that might be essential for conformational
interplay between DrrA and DrrB during the catalytic cycle. One module present at the extreme
C terminus of DrrA consists of two separate motifs, DEF and CREEM. CREEM motif together
with its upstream region ...
Plakoglobin domains that define its association with the
... plakoglobin is required for its interactions with N-cadherin
(Sacco et al., 1995). In this report we extend our studies to
show that a domain near the N terminus is also necessary for
plakoglobin to associate with classical cadherins. In addition,
we show that a domain near the C terminus plays a ro ...
The regulation of receptor protein tyrosine
... dimerization of the D2 domain can inhibit the phosphatase activity of PTPRs. A few models have been proposed to explain
how phosphatase activity is inhibited by dimerization, but the precise mechanism is still not established. In this review, we
discuss the regulatory mechanism of the phosphatase ac ...
Maternal control of the zebrafish organizer
... and F2 males of family no. 33. In 7 of 33 families, we were able to
recover F2 females that transmitted the ichabod phenotype to their
progeny (F3 embryos). Ratios of ichabod-transmitting females in
four of the families generated from crosses of F1 siblings are
presented. The number of F2 females ob ...
... domains is 1.70 Å. This parameter compares best
with the corresponding parameter found in
permanent heterocomplexes, which form together
with enzyme–inhibitor complexes the most complementary interfaces.21
In a-actinin-3, an eight-residue linker connects
the two CH domains in a stable hairpin confo ...
Introduction Wnt signaling in development
... Furthermore, the strong amino- and carboxy-terminal transactivation
domains of β-catenin transform TCF/LEF-1 into an active bipartite
transcription factor. The conversion of a transcriptional repressor into an
activator ensures that Wnt target gene expression is highly specific.
It is clear from the ...
The intercalated disc-associated Xin family of proteins in cardiac
... addition, a direct interaction between mXinα and the adherens junction protein β-catenin
facilitates mXinα’s interaction with the actin filaments. Based on this in vitro
characterization of mXinα, we proposed that mXinα may act as a direct link between the
adherens junctions and actin cytoskeleton, ...
Recombinant N-terminal Nucleotide
... halves, each containing up to six putative membrane-spanning
a-helices and one cytoplasmically sided nucleotide-binding domain with characteristic Walker motifs A and B (7). P-glycoprotein structural organization is typical of the ATP-binding
cassette (ABC)1 superfamily including yeast (8) and proto ...
McClay et al.
... to bring development completely to the pluteus stage. It is the
‘priority region’ where differentiation begins. And when
differentiation has begun, ‘from this center all other regions
are determined in their role by a regulatory action” (cited in
E-cadherin controls β-catenin and NF
... E-cadherin controls mesenchymal gene transcription
siRNA and ΔTCF4 were affecting the transcriptional activity of
We checked the requirement of β-catenin and TCF4 activity for
the transcription of fibronectin and LEF1. In cells with expression
of these genes, downregulation of β-cateni ...
β-catenin controls differentiation of the retinal pigment epithelium in
... the choroid. The RPE is vital for growth and function of the vertebrate eye and improper development results in congenital defects,
such as microphthalmia or anophthalmia, or a change of cell fate into neural retina called transdifferentiation. The transcription
factors microphthalmia-associated tra ...
... Thus, Wnt signaling is required for the induction of posterior
β-Catenin-dependent Wnt signal transduction is a multi-step
process that consists of several molecular components. It is
initiated by secreted Wnt glycoproteins that bind to transmembrane
Frizzled receptors (Angers and Moon, ...
In the prevailing view Conducitn is usually considered to act as a
... head interaction surface of the axin DIX domain preventing its homopolymerisation, but
leaves the tail interaction surface intact for interaction with Dvl2 (Fiedler et al., 2011). We
propose that this results in blunting of Dvl2 polymers leading to smaller complexes no longer
visible as puncta (see ...
Tcf7l1 protects the anterior neural fold from adopting the neural crest
... Tcf7l1 and Tcf7l2 (alias Tcf3 and Tcf4) (Castrop et al., 1992). Tcf/
Lefs share several characteristic protein features, such as the Nterminal β-catenin-binding motif, GRG motifs for binding of
Groucho/TLE co-repressors, and the HMG box containing the
DNA-binding domain. Tcf7 and Tcf7l2 also contain ...
... EBA-175, BAEBL, and JSEBL all can bind sialic acid residues, but each
recognises different erythrocyte sialoglycoproteins; receptor for EBA175 is human RBC receptor glycophorin A. Redundant pathways means
that EBA-175 is not essential.
X-ray structure of EBA-175 was solved with sialic acid derivativ ...
Two classic cadherin-related molecules with no cadherin
... of known classic cadherin family members (Oda et al., 2002).
Instead, its extracellular region consists of two laminin globular
domains (LGs) and one cysteine-rich EGF-like domain (CE) that
partially matches with the sequence of the primitive classic
cadherin domain (PCCD) complex that occurs in all ...
Structural Basis of Wnt Recognition by Frizzled
... XWnt8 has an unusual two-domain structure (Figure 2), and each domain extends a betastrand or ‘finger’, which ‘grasps’ the Fz8-CRD on opposite faces. Site 1 interaction is primarily mediated by a palmitoleic acid covalently attached to a conserved Serine at the tip of
‘thumb’, which binds within a ...
... repeats (EC) and an intracellular catenin-binding domain (CBD). Only type I cadherins contain a conserved His-Ala-Val (HAV) cell adhesion recognition
sequence in their first EC domain. Desmosomal cadherins contain in part an extended cytoplasmic domain (dotted box), and their CBD differs from type
Relation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway
... follistatin (7-9). If the Wnt/β-catenin signaling
pathway continues under control, biologic processes
like proliferation, differentiation, and regulation of
target genes’ transcription occur normally, but these
target genes’ aberrant activation causes cancer and
other serious diseases. In addition, ...
Catenin beta-1 also known as β-catenin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTNNB1 gene.β-catenin is a dual function protein, regulating the coordination of cell–cell adhesion and gene transcription. In humans, the CTNNB1 protein is encoded by the CTNNB1 gene. In Drosophila, the homologous protein is called armadillo. β-catenin is a subunit of the cadherin protein complex and acts as an intracellular signal transducer in the Wnt signaling pathway. It is a member of the catenin protein family and homologous to γ-catenin, also known as plakoglobin. Beta-catenin is widely expressed in many tissues. In cardiac muscle, beta-catenin localizes to adherens junctions in intercalated disc structures, which are critical for electrical and mechanical coupling between adjacent cardiomyocyte.Mutations and overexpression of β-catenin are associated with many cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, lung cancer, malignant breast tumors, ovarian and endometrial cancer. Alterations in the localization and expression levels of beta-catenin have been associated with various forms of heart disease, including dilated cardiomyopathy. β-catenin is regulated and destroyed by the beta-catenin destruction complex, and in particular by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, encoded by the tumour-suppressing APC gene. Therefore genetic mutation of the APC gene is also strongly linked to cancers, and in particular colorectal cancer resulting from familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).