Glutamatergic Modulation of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus and its
... BioMed-II Building, Rayford Auditorium
Glutamatergic Modulation of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus and
its Potential Effects on Waking and REM Sleep
Abstract: The Pedunculopontine Nucleus (PPN) is the cholinergic arm of the
Reticular Activating System and is involved in cortical arousal. More specifica ...
Neurotest 3a Answers MC E 2) A 3) E 4) A 5) B Defs Habituation
... 4) Sensory neuron to interneuron to motor neuron diagram; reflexes allow
swiftest response (unconscious) to noxious stimuli
5) (see Bowe)
6) Insomnia: inability to go to sleep or stay asleep
Narcolepsy: falling asleep at inappropriate times throughout day
Sleep Apnea: cessation of breathing during s ...
No Slide Title
... PART OF BRAIN
1 - u.arizona.edu
... - as night progresses SWS episodes shorter and REM episodes longer, i.e. SWS early in
night, REM sleep at dawn
Slow-wave sleep (Serotonin)
- heart rate, BP, respiratory rate, and set point of hypothalamic thermostat decrease; gut motility
increases, blood flow to brain decreases (in thalamus, basa ...
... several stages. Following the initial "twilight" state, which is
characterized by irregular, low-voltage alpha waves and a state of
relaxed wakefulness, the sleeper enters Stage 1 of sleep…
Week 14 The Memory Function of Sleep
... • Sharp-wave ripple complexes are also temporally coupled to
• These ripple-spindle events provide a mechanism for hippocampalneocortical information transfer.
• Ripples and associated hippocampal memory re-activations feed into
the excitatory phases of the spindle cycle.
• During the up-s ...
Griggs Chapter 2: Neuroscience
... receptors in the eyes, muscles, and glands
Motor neurons carry movement commands
from the central nervous system to the rest of
Chapter 4 - coachburke
... there are various brain areas and several
neurotransmitters that control the sleep-wake
UCLA Molecular Biology Institute
... Sleep regulation is a very mysterious phenomenon. Despite the fact that sleep is an essential component of the human experience occupying ~ 1/3 of our lives, little is known
about what sleep is and what purposes it serves. It is clear that chronic disruption of
sleep leads to increased risks of not ...
Neurotransmitters and Sleep
... a wide reaching and general effect when stimulated.
As with ACh, both of these neurotransmitters, and the corresponding brain structures play
an important role in cortical activation in general, though their specific effects are more
complex. Experiments with lab animals have found that stimulation ...
Cholinergic Modulation of Arousal in the Pedunculopontine (PPN
... decreases from about 8 hours in the newborn to about 1 hour in the adult in the human, and this
decrease occurs mostly from birth to the end of puberty. We hypothesized that, if the
developmental decrease in REM sleep does not occur, it will lead to lifelong increases in REM
sleep drive, which are e ...
Introduction to Psychology: Final Exam
... C27. The brain’s activating system, or “alarm clock,” thatdirects attention and alertness.
A 28. This structure in the brainstem directs vital life functions such as heartbeat and breathing.
E 29. A peanut-sized structure that is part of the forebrain’s limbic system regulates behaviors
related to s ...
... 1) REM sleep is inhibited by
A) increased activity of neurons within the locus coeruleus.
B) increased activity of peribrachial neurons.
C) increased activity of neurons within the raphe nucleus.
D) decreased activity of neurons within the thalamus.
E) A and C are correct.
2) Although the amygdala i ...
Lecture 38 (Rhythms)
... Most animals will die if kept from sleeping for too long
All vertebrates sleep – evolution would have dropped sleep if
it didn’t serve a useful function.
Sleep Helps the Brain!
... sleep state.
• They then tested the cognitive abilities of all 3 groups.
• The rats that had received enhanced sleep treatments performed
... The cerebellum controls essential body functions such as balance, posture and coordination,
allowing humans to move properly and maintain their structure.
Temporal Lobe: The temporal lobe controls visual and auditory memories. It includes areas that
help manage some speech and hearing capabilities, ...
... – Sleep allows the body to repair itself.
– Sleep deprivation
... night terrors can occur during this stage
• Still attend to external stimuli
... (SCN) in the hypothalamus.
SCNs generate rhythms (spontaneous firing).
Rapid eye movement sleep
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of mammalian sleep characterized by random movement of the eyes, low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly. This phase is also known as paradoxical sleep (PS) and sometimes desynchronized sleep because of physiological similarities to waking states, including rapid, low-voltage desynchronized brain waves. Electrical and chemical activity regulating this phase seems to originate in the brain stem and is characterized most notably by an abundance of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, combined with a nearly complete absence of monoamine neurotransmitters histamine, serotonin, and norepinepherine. The cortical and thalamic neurons of the waking or paradoxically sleeping brain are more depolarized—i.e., can ""fire"" more readily—than in the deeply sleeping brain. The right and left hemispheres of the brain are more coherent in REM sleep, especially during lucid dreams.REM sleep is punctuated and immediately preceded by PGO (ponto-geniculo-occipital waves) waves, bursts of electrical activity originating in the brain stem. These waves occur in clusters about every 6 seconds for 1–2 minutes during the transition from deep to paradoxical sleep. They exhibit their highest amplitude upon moving into the visual cortex and are a cause of the ""rapid eye movements"" in paradoxical sleep.Brain energy use in REM sleep, as measured by oxygen and glucose metabolism, equals or exceeds energy use in waking. The rate in non-REM sleep is 11–40% lower.