Cronon: Chapter 6, Taking the Forest
... “Reducing the forest was an essential
first step toward reproducing the Old
World mosaic in an American
environment. For the New England
landscape and for the Indians, what
followed was a new ecological order; for
the colonists, on the other hand, it was
an old and familiar way of life.” (126)
ONE O ...
The centralised corporate ownership of our food and food
... of wholesome traditional and sustainable farming to greenwash
their own industrial solutions, while in fact they are pushing
out farms, robbing the rural population of food and livelihood.
Unfortunately, the measures that are discussed in UN
Conferences give companies emission rights so they can car ...
... W. Hemlock—extremely tolerant of shade and moisture. Finely furrowed bark, drooping branches.
Wood is not very strong, used for paper.
Red Cedar—needs lots of water, can tolerate wet soils. Wood in older trees is rot and insect resistant.
Sitka Spruce—Big. Gray scaly plated bark. Co-occurs with W. H ...
and the Forest Restoration Research Unit, Thailand
... The Eden Project has played an important role in the development
of FORRU since 2002, supporting three major projects:
Research for Restoring Northern Thailand’s Tropical
Forests: a three-year research project to test the efficacy of
the framework species method in restoring degraded forest
land. Th ...
... America. These animals are limited to large old-growth forests that can provide
numerous different fruits that fall on to the ground (Chapman and Chapman 1995).
Hunting has occurred over millions of years and only limits the population near large
human activity centers. As larger forests are cut dow ...
symbiosis fall 2015
... A relationship in which one species
benefits and the other species is
They attach to your
and suck out all of
the host is harmed
slowly starve to
6. Forested Headwaters 7. Nurse Log 8. Forested Wetlands 1
... with water. The water table is at or near
the surface, rising with seasonal flooding.
Wetlands are complex, vital ecosystems
that support a wide variety of plants and
wildlife. Most noticeable is the prevalence
of skunk cabbage with their large glossy
green leaves and yellow blossoms in the
spring ( ...
... • Special interaction
• Can be helpful or
... _____15. Deforestation is linked to all of the following except:
A. release of CO2, which may contribute to an increase in global temperature.
B. decreased soil fertility.
C. the extinction of many species.
D. increasingly dry local climates.
E. decreased surface water flow into streams and rivers.
... development of cities and suburbs, including conversion of farmland and destruction of habitats
for other organisms
industrial growth, which consumes energy and emits pollutants
Advance desertification_Lecture 3
... desert lands were increasing as human population
along with food demands increase.
This of course was much more noticed and significant
... Bycatch: Reduce bycatch levels by using wider mesh nets to allow smaller species
and smaller individuals of that targeted species to escape, outfitting trawling nets
with devices to exclude seabirds and sea turtles, having observers on fishing
vessels, licensing boats to catch several species instea ...
Symbiosis Power Point
... The fungus needs food but cannot make it. The
algae makes food but needs some way to keep moist.
The fungus forms a crust around the algae which
GeoFile – Tropical Rainforests
... main function of the tip is to
remove water from the leaf
surface so that transpiration can
proceed unhindered. This idea is
supported by the fact that driptips are particularly common in
the understorey layer, where lack
of wind and high humidity reduce
• Tree bark is thin (1– ...
3.1 TXT + WKBK answers
... o Distinct seasonal changes, moderate rainfall, rich organic soil
o Very fertile- harsh seasonal changes- very wet season followed by extremely dry
season (animals migrate away)
o Wet season- lush grass and shrubbery growth- ample food for large animals
o Fire- important role
o Lots of precipitation ...
Trees - Lake Barcroft
... WHEREAS, the great number of mature trees located in the Lake Barcroft community
constitute a significant part of the ambience and uniqueness of the community;
WHEREAS, the trees, together with the lake itself, are assets which contribute greatly to
the economic value of the properties contained wit ...
himalaya blackberry recommended removal technics from
... herbaceous species between planted stocks will greatly enhance weed prevention
by shading out weed seeds and seedlings. Take care to protect planted stock from
the same competition that inhabits weeds. There does not appear to be an edge
over mechanical vs. chemical site preparation.
Controlling roo ...
glossary - National Tree Day
... vegetation. This may be the result of a natural event, such as fire, or through human activity such as grazing
or land-clearing. While too frequent burning through human impact is detrimental to the health of many
ecosystems, the regeneration that takes place after naturally occurring wildfires can ...
Temperate Rain Forests
... __________________ are large regions characterized by a specific type of
climate and certain types of plant and animal communities.
Each biome is made up of many individual ecosystems.
Biomes and Vegetation
Biomes are described by their _____________________because plants that
grow in an area ...
Farmer-managed natural regeneration
Farmer-managed natural regeneration (FMNR) is a low-cost, sustainable land-restoration technique used to combat poverty and hunger amongst poor subsistence farmers in developing countries by increasing food and timber production, and resilience to climate extremes. It involves the systematic regeneration and management of trees and shrubs from tree stumps, roots and seeds.FMNR is especially applicable, but not restricted to, the dryland tropics. As well as returning degraded croplands and grazing lands to productivity, it can be used to restore degraded forests, thereby reversing biodiversity loss and reducing vulnerability to climate change. FMNR can also play an important role in maintaining not-yet-degraded landscapes in a productive state, especially when combined with other sustainable land management practices such as conservation agriculture on cropland and holistic management on rangelands.FMNR adapts centuries-old methods of woodland management, called coppicing and pollarding, to produce continuous tree-growth for fuel, building materials, food and fodder without the need for frequent and costly replanting. On farmland, selected trees are trimmed and pruned to maximise growth while promoting optimal growing conditions for annual crops (such as access to water and sunlight). When FMNR trees are integrated into crops and grazing pastures there is an increase in crop yields, soil fertility and organic matter, soil moisture and leaf fodder. There is also a decrease in wind and heat damage, and soil erosion.In the Sahel region of Africa, FMNR has become a potent tool in increasing food security, resilience and climate change adaptation in poor, subsistence farming communities where much of sub-Saharan Africa’s poverty exists. FMNR is also being promoted in East Timor, Indonesia and Myanmar.FMNR complements the evergreen agriculture, conservation agriculture and agroforestry movements. It is considered a good entry point for resource-poor and risk-averse farmers to adopt a low-cost and low-risk technique. This in turn has acted as a stepping stone to greater agricultural intensification as farmers become more receptive to new ideas.