54. Adverbs and adverbials
... The term “adverb” refers to a specific word class or lexical category and therefore contrasts with other word classes, such as nouns, adjectives, verbs, or prepositions.
On the one hand, both adverbs and prepositions are uninflected, with adverbs differing from prepositions in having phrasal status. ...
Morphological recoverability in Gapping
... the phonology I use the term ‘PF-interface’. To refer to all of the steps of the derivation that occur after a
phrase marker leaves the purview of the narrow syntax but before it enters the purview of the phonology (i.e.
before the PF-interface in the sense just specified) I use the term ‘PF-branch’ ...
Theory and method in grammaticalization
... complex notion in which a number of factors correlate. Concentrating on only one of them
will not suffice. For instance, the discussion is very often simplified by using coalescence
(free > clitic > affixal > fusional) as the sole criterion for grammaticalization. In cases where
there is disagreemen ...
... is better than the other. Your student will probably let you know which
works best for him.
I think it's a good idea to correct the test with the student so mistakes are
immediately apparent. If a student answers at least 70% in each section
of the assessment (that's the Competency level) correctly, ...
160-Lab06BKG - Western Oregon University
... strategies. It should be noted that there is no single set of rules that, if followed, always leads
to an effective and efficient algorithm. In fact, problem solving relies so much on creativity and
ingenuity that some people regard computer programming as an art form! Looking for better
Conjunctions as Heads
... empty conjunctions (resulting in what is often called asyndetic coordination) in various languages. Here, I will provide evidence that they are not
elided. We shall see five arguments for counting unexpressed conjunctions as empty conjunctions rather than no conjunctions. Finally, we shall
see that ...
CLITICS IN FOUR DIALECTS OF MODERN GREEK: A DYNAMIC ACCOUNT
... discussed, arguing that the availability of Clitic Doubling in a given language depends on
whether clitics in this language have lost their bottom restriction or not. Lastly, this thesis
provides crucial evidence supporting the account given by Cann & Kempson (2008) and
Chatzikyriakidis & Kempson (2 ...
Investigations of downward movement
... Phase Head Impenetrability Condition (PHIC), under which features embedded in a
complex phase head become inaccessible as a result of Spell-out. Lowering occurs
as a last resort feature-checking operation when the next highest head targets one of
these embedded features; Raising occurs otherwise. I ...
Tracking Point of View in Narrative
... sort of private state p is. Notice that \attitude" is being used as a general covering term,
referring to a class of which the propositional attitudes are only a subclass.
We shall limit our scope in this paper mainly to two classes of subjective sentences,
one containing those Baneld calls \repres ...
Using an Ontology for Guiding Natural Language
... improvements in the friendliness of the interaction have been achieved by integrating
different modes and media. Help tools that guide the user with respect to the interface
possibilities have been incorporated.
Following this evolution, significant improvements in communication with simple
Construction of grammar from the semantic basis
... (users) as social subjects, a structural part of objective reality, being in this way, i.e.
via the objective biological and social existence of man and society, a participant
in the “self-awareness” of the objective reality. This assertion formulates the materialist monist determination of language ...
Interlingua based English-Hindi Machine
... represented at a level that is independent of the underlying meanings of the source and target
sentences. Factoring out these distinctions allows cross linguistic generalizations to be
captured at the level of the lexical semantic structure.
The work presented here is the only one to our knowledge t ...
Into-English Grading Standards - American Translators Association
... In virtually all contexts encountered in the certification examination, the use of abbreviated forms of words is
unacceptable and is penalized as a Usage error. The following are important exceptions to this rule:
Titles used in apposition to proper names
All common titles may be abbreviated if they ...
- City Research Online
... within the lexical, grammatical and semantic capabilities of the system. The terms 'Robust
NLP' [29, 88] and 'Partial Parsing' [120, 174, 82] have been used to describe the nature
of systems which seek to analyse real text. As stated above, one of the major problems
that such text produces is the pr ...
The Analogical Speaker or grammar put in its place
... archive for the deposit and dissemination of scientific research documents, whether they are published or not. The documents may come from
teaching and research institutions in France or
abroad, or from public or private research centers.
Structuring information in discourse: the explicit/implicit
... (ii) Five case studies that are thematically, theoretically and/or methodologically related to one or more of the keynote papers listed in (i). These case
studies also widen the perspective somewhat: one paper presenting a unified context-dependent semantics for the conjunct adverb doch (Elena K ...
Error location in Python: where the mutants hide
... Python and Python is now quite popular among scientists [26, 30]. Many new programmers are being introduced to programming with Python because Python lacks excessive
syntax and forces structured and modular programming via forced white-space block
However, the approach used in Campb ...
Great Grammar Commas - The Described and Captioned Media
... information presented within the video.
• Before Viewing Activities help identify what students already know
about the subject, what they are curious about, and what they hope to learn.
• During Viewing Activities may be used during viewing to enhance
students’ understanding of the video.
• After Vi ...
Syntax and Compositional Semantics of the Clause
... Anything that can be a predicate complement can be an adjunct too.
NP: Investors put $67 billion into mutual funds, a 186% increase over 2003.
Adjective phrase: Incapable of driving, he called a taxi.
PP: I watched the whales with binoculars.
Before midnight, he left the party.
Before he left the pa ...
Lecture 12: Semantics and Pragmatics
... ➣ Language has many uses, only one of which is to convey information
— but surely transferring information is important
➣ We can measure information in a limited, technical, and very useful, sense
➢ Think of a signal being transmitted from a source to a destination, possibly
with noise in the channe ...
Chapter 7: Linking syntax and semantics in complex sentences
... we developed in Chapter 5. Clausal junctures, for example, are composed of clauses, each of which
links like an independent clause. Moreover, nuclear junctures act for linking purposes like simple
clauses containing a complex predicate, and they basically follow the algorithms for simple
Querying Large Collections of Semistructured Data
... to distinguish text documents and rank them, math symbols do not contain much semantic information on their own. Unfortunately, considering the structure of mathematical
expressions to calculate relevance scores of documents results in ranking algorithms that
are computationally more expensive than ...
Parsing or syntactic analysis is the process of analysing a string of symbols, either in natural language or in computer languages, conforming to the rules of a formal grammar. The term parsing comes from Latin pars (orationis), meaning part (of speech).The term has slightly different meanings in different branches of linguistics and computer science. Traditional sentence parsing is often performed as a method of understanding the exact meaning of a sentence, sometimes with the aid of devices such as sentence diagrams. It usually emphasizes the importance of grammatical divisions such as subject and predicate.Within computational linguistics the term is used to refer to the formal analysis by a computer of a sentence or other string of words into its constituents, resulting in a parse tree showing their syntactic relation to each other, which may also contain semantic and other information.The term is also used in psycholinguistics when describing language comprehension. In this context, parsing refers to the way that human beings analyze a sentence or phrase (in spoken language or text) ""in terms of grammatical constituents, identifying the parts of speech, syntactic relations, etc."" This term is especially common when discussing what linguistic cues help speakers to interpret garden-path sentences.Within computer science, the term is used in the analysis of computer languages, referring to the syntactic analysis of the input code into its component parts in order to facilitate the writing of compilers and interpreters.