Diffraction Grating Handbook

... composition of and processes in stars and planetary atmospheres, as well as offer clues to the large-scale motions of objects in the universe. In chemistry, toxicology and forensic science, grating-based instruments are used to determine the presence and concentration of chemical species in samples. ...

... composition of and processes in stars and planetary atmospheres, as well as offer clues to the large-scale motions of objects in the universe. In chemistry, toxicology and forensic science, grating-based instruments are used to determine the presence and concentration of chemical species in samples. ...

Optical Shop Testing

... Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merc ...

... Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merc ...

Nd:YAG Based Laser Sources for Targeting

... incorporating a deformable bimorph mirror. A new concept for a targeting laser source, which incorporated an eye-safe wavelength, was demonstrated using a common resonator intracavity OPO design. A conversion efficiency of 40% was achieved for 36 mJ output of 1573 nm eye-safe light from a 90 mJ lase ...

... incorporating a deformable bimorph mirror. A new concept for a targeting laser source, which incorporated an eye-safe wavelength, was demonstrated using a common resonator intracavity OPO design. A conversion efficiency of 40% was achieved for 36 mJ output of 1573 nm eye-safe light from a 90 mJ lase ...

Fused Silica Transmission Gratings

... dλ λ ⋅ cos(θ D ) where θ D is given by the grating equation, which shows the dependence on illumination wavelength, grating period and incidence angle. A high dispersion means that there is a high angular separation between the diffracted wavelengths, which translates to a high resolution or compact ...

... dλ λ ⋅ cos(θ D ) where θ D is given by the grating equation, which shows the dependence on illumination wavelength, grating period and incidence angle. A high dispersion means that there is a high angular separation between the diffracted wavelengths, which translates to a high resolution or compact ...

Strehl ratio for primary aberrations: some analytical results for

... balanced (in the sense of minimum variance) aberrations are considered. The corresponding orthogonal (Zernike) aberrations are given in Ref. 1. The form of an orthogonal aberration is identical with that of a balanced aberration, except in the case of a rotationally symmetric aberration, in which ca ...

... balanced (in the sense of minimum variance) aberrations are considered. The corresponding orthogonal (Zernike) aberrations are given in Ref. 1. The form of an orthogonal aberration is identical with that of a balanced aberration, except in the case of a rotationally symmetric aberration, in which ca ...

CHAPTER 37

... (b) Let ma be the integer associated with a minimum in the pattern produced by light with wavelength a and let mb be the integer associated with a minimum in the pattern produced by light with wavelength b . A minimum in one pattern coincides with a minimum in the other if they occur at the same a ...

... (b) Let ma be the integer associated with a minimum in the pattern produced by light with wavelength a and let mb be the integer associated with a minimum in the pattern produced by light with wavelength b . A minimum in one pattern coincides with a minimum in the other if they occur at the same a ...

Length Scales Analysis of Wave Scattering from Rough Surfaces

... of the incident wave, the roughness (σ) and the correlation length (ξ) of the surface. In this work we show the effective role of the correlation length in surface scattering. Up to now, some of the reports for wave scattering from rough surfaces are based on the product of the wave number and surfa ...

... of the incident wave, the roughness (σ) and the correlation length (ξ) of the surface. In this work we show the effective role of the correlation length in surface scattering. Up to now, some of the reports for wave scattering from rough surfaces are based on the product of the wave number and surfa ...

High Harmonic Generation for Coherent Diffractive Imaging

... of spatial coherence at each sampled wavelength but poor temporal coherence across the sampled spectrum. Diffraction patterns of wide dynamic range can be acquired by means of a new design involving a beam stop and image stitching. Binary and non-binary periodic and non-periodic samples have been su ...

... of spatial coherence at each sampled wavelength but poor temporal coherence across the sampled spectrum. Diffraction patterns of wide dynamic range can be acquired by means of a new design involving a beam stop and image stitching. Binary and non-binary periodic and non-periodic samples have been su ...

Development of a process for characterization of Nd:YAG crystals

... Efficient and reliable operation of a lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser is highly dependent on the crystal from which the beam is derived. However little attention is given to the quality of the laser beam produced by each crystal. Although many factors influence the output beam, the power dependent focal le ...

... Efficient and reliable operation of a lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser is highly dependent on the crystal from which the beam is derived. However little attention is given to the quality of the laser beam produced by each crystal. Although many factors influence the output beam, the power dependent focal le ...

Design and fabrication of blazed binary diffractive - HAL

... The fabrication of blazed-index diffractive elements through a diffusion process or ion exchange as used for fabricating graded-index lenses or waveguides is difficult because the 2p-phase jumps required at zone extremities are smoothed by the fabrication process. Conversely, artificial dielectric d ...

... The fabrication of blazed-index diffractive elements through a diffusion process or ion exchange as used for fabricating graded-index lenses or waveguides is difficult because the 2p-phase jumps required at zone extremities are smoothed by the fabrication process. Conversely, artificial dielectric d ...

Bessel beams: diffraction in a new light

... description of such a beam using a Bessel function, and this leads to a predicted cross-sectional proﬁle of a set of concentric rings. Mathematically the Bessel beam can contain an inﬁnite number of rings, and so over an inﬁnite area would carry inﬁnite power. So the conclusion must be that we canno ...

... description of such a beam using a Bessel function, and this leads to a predicted cross-sectional proﬁle of a set of concentric rings. Mathematically the Bessel beam can contain an inﬁnite number of rings, and so over an inﬁnite area would carry inﬁnite power. So the conclusion must be that we canno ...

UNIVERSIDAD DE MURCIA ABERRACIONES EN LENTES OFTÁLMICAS DE POTENCIA

... por diferentes opciones, como monovisión, lentes mulltifocales, y últimamente también se está experimentando con lentes acomodativas que aprovechan el mecanismo de contracción-relajación residual del músculo ciliar para desplazar la lente hacia delante en visión cercana. Con lentes de contacto, tamb ...

... por diferentes opciones, como monovisión, lentes mulltifocales, y últimamente también se está experimentando con lentes acomodativas que aprovechan el mecanismo de contracción-relajación residual del músculo ciliar para desplazar la lente hacia delante en visión cercana. Con lentes de contacto, tamb ...

Point spread function engineering in confocal scanning microscopy

... The improvement of the performance of optical microscopes has aimed many researches along the last decades. Conventional wide-field microscopes are close to reach their maximum efficiency through the use of the available objectives with numerical apertures (NA) up to 1.4. However, when using this ki ...

... The improvement of the performance of optical microscopes has aimed many researches along the last decades. Conventional wide-field microscopes are close to reach their maximum efficiency through the use of the available objectives with numerical apertures (NA) up to 1.4. However, when using this ki ...

# Airy disk

In optics, the Airy disk (or Airy disc) and Airy pattern are descriptions of the best focused spot of light that a perfect lens with a circular aperture can make, limited by the diffraction of light. The Airy disk is of importance in physics, optics, and astronomy.The diffraction pattern resulting from a uniformly-illuminated circular aperture has a bright region in the center, known as the Airy disk which together with the series of concentric bright rings around is called the Airy pattern. Both are named after George Biddell Airy. The disk and rings phenomenon had been known prior to Airy; John Herschel described the appearance of a bright star seen through a telescope under high magnification for an 1828 article on light for the Encyclopedia Metropolitana:...the star is then seen (in favourable circumstances of tranquil atmosphere, uniform temperature, &c.) as a perfectly round, well-defined planetary disc, surrounded by two, three, or more alternately dark and bright rings, which, if examined attentively, are seen to be slightly coloured at their borders. They succeed each other nearly at equal intervals round the central disc....However, Airy wrote the first full theoretical treatment explaining the phenomenon (his 1835 ""On the Diffraction of an Object-glass with Circular Aperture"").Mathematically, the diffraction pattern is characterized by the wavelength of light illuminating the circular aperture, and the aperture's size. The appearance of the diffraction pattern is additionally characterized by the sensitivity of the eye or other detector used to observe the pattern.The most important application of this concept is in cameras and telescopes. Owing to diffraction, the smallest point to which a lens or mirror can focus a beam of light is the size of the Airy disk. Even if one were able to make a perfect lens, there is still a limit to the resolution of an image created by this lens. An optical system in which the resolution is no longer limited by imperfections in the lenses but only by diffraction is said to be diffraction limited.