thesis - ETDA
... excessive excitatory input, perhaps too little inhibitory input is given, or a combination of
both. Balance between excitation and inhibition is a crucial role the basal ganglia exerts
on the motor cortex through the thalamus, which itself influences the cortex in an
excitatory manner. Inhibition of ...
Control of Extracellular Dopamine at Dendrite and Axon Terminals
... course of dopamine release from axonal terminals in the dorsal
striatum and dendritic terminals in the VTA. A single stimulus
evoked release of dopamine in both the VTA and dorsal striatum
(Fig. 1 A, B). The amount of dopamine released in the midbrain
was far less than that in the striatum (VTA: 47 ...
Memantine is a clinically well tolerated N-methyl-D
... glycine (Parsons et al., 1993). Thus, antagonism via
interactions at the glycineB site is unlikely. However, it
is possible that memantine increases the affinity of
glycine at NMDA receptors as reflected in a potentiation of NMDA currents at positive potentials by low
concentrations of memantine (Wa ...
Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Reelin Signaling in the Adult
... subset of GABAergic interneurons, we found that their expression was generally
juxtaposed, with Dab1 being primarily expressed by principle neurons and a
more widespread population of Reelin-negative GABAergic interneurons. While
eKO mice exhibited normal forebrain lamination, dendritic architecture ...
Thomas C. Südhof - Nobel Lecture Slides
... botulinum toxins (C. Montecucco + R. Jahn laboratories; 1992/1993)
2. Synaptobrevin, SNAP-25, and syntaxin form a complex, known as SNARE
complex (J. Rothman laboratory; 1993)
3. Munc18 binds to SNAREs and is homologous to Unc18 and Sec1p, proteins
known to be essential for C. elegans movements and ...
Zebrafish Get Connected: Investigating Neurotransmission Targets
... the topic has been extensively reviewed previously [48,49] and is commonly found in textbooks.
The functions, pharmacology, and mechanisms of the glutamate receptor types have been
extensively reviewed [33–35,37,50–52]; key information is summarized here.
Ionotropic glutamate receptors are grouped i ...
Inhibitory Gating of Basolateral Amygdala Inputs to the Prefrontal
... including parvalbumin (PV) and somatostatin (SOM) expressing
interneurons (Kawaguchi and Kubota, 1997, 1998; Marlin and
Carter, 2014). In principle, BLA inputs are well positioned to
synapse onto these interneurons to drive local inhibition in the
circuit. In deeper layers, interneurons have been fo ...
Sleep duration varies as a function of glutamate and GABA in rat
The oral part of the pontine reticular formation (PnO) is a
component of the ascending reticular activating system and
plays a role in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. The
PnO receives glutamatergic and GABAergic projections from
many brain regions that regulate behavioral state. In ...
Dendritic Computation - UCSD Cognitive Science
... conductance of the membrane but does not
cause any voltage change when activated on
its own. In this case it is more convenient to
think of the inhibition as reducing the input
resistance of the cell, effectively reducing the
voltage response to excitatory current. This
property of inhibition can be ...
Module 10 - Neuronal Signalling
... The brain contains approximately one trillion (1012 ) neurons that are located in different brain regions.
Within each region, neurons are connected to each other to form neural circuits of bewildering
complexity. To function in such circuits, each neuron must receive and process information enterin ...
View PDF - MRC Brain Network Dynamics Unit
... of this synaptic excitation are the projections from the intralaminar thalamic nuclei (ITN). Indeed, thalamic input appears necessary for the pause response of TANs in nonhuman primates
(Matsumoto et al., 2001). In vivo, electrical stimulation of cortex
has also been shown to excite cholinergic inte ...
Role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the control
... anxiogenic stimuli. We will focus here on the function of BST in brain
reward circuitry, particularly in terms of its connectivity with the
mesolimbic DA system, and the major role it plays in modulating DA
neuronal activity. We refer also to an excellent review for studies on
the role of BST in the ...
- CUNY Academic Works
... (VTA) and projects to forebrain regions such as the nucleus accumbens (NAcc),
amygdala (AMG) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). These forebrain regions will be referred to
as the DA terminal regions. The neural mechanisms underlying this type of rewardrelated learning in this system are not fully understo ...
Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function Wiley
... will make you realise just how much the nervous system has to achieve and how many
different parts of it have to be involved and functionally integrated. This is without
considering whether you feel content, anxious, or depressed and how that can affect
your concentration and ability to read and lea ...
The Classical Complement Cascade Mediates
... elimination (Jaubert-Miazza et al., 2005; Hooks and
Chen, 2006). Axons from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) terminate in distinct nonoverlapping eye-specific domains in
the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). The majority
of eye-specific segregation occurs postnatally before the
onset of vision, ...
Anandamide as an intracellular messenger regulating ion channel
... marijuana. This discovery, together with the isolation of the second endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol, established the foundation of a new signalling system in the
brain [2,3]. This system is of importance to the understanding of neuronal communication
Local network regulation of orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus
... dynorphin and N/OFQ, masking the excitatory orexin effect.
However, during a prolonged firing activity, -receptors will
be desensitized and the excitatory orexin effect will eventually
prevail. Nonetheless, the excitability will be kept in check due
to the nondesensitizing N/OFQ effect. It has been ...
HCN channels are a novel therapeutic target for cognitive
... Figures 2b and e). These results indicate that intact expression of
the neuron-speciﬁc Nf1 exon 9a isoform is required for normal
To determine whether the spatial learning impairments of
Nf19a–/9a– mutants are associated with changes in synaptic function, we recorded ﬁeld excitator ...
Estradiol, Substance P, and the PI3K-Akt
... Glutamate is the primary signaling molecule in this system, but there are many others
involved. Substance P is a tachykinin neuropeptide that acts as both an inflammatory mediator in
the periphery and a signaling molecule at the dorsal horn. It contributes to the development of
hyperalgesia and cent ...
... EvBrain is a form of evolutionary software that can evolve "brainlike" neural
networks, such as the network immediately behind the retina.
Since November 2008, IBM received a $4.9 million grant from the Pentagon for
research into creating intelligent computers. The Blue Brain project is being
S-potentials precede and drive nearly all LGN spikes in a burst.
... tonic. The bursting mode has been shown in cats and guinea pigs
to depend on activation of the low-threshold calcium current (IT).
Characteristically, all spikes but the first one in a burst do not
require additional synaptic input to occur because IT depolarizes
the cell, generating several INa act ...
Triggered activity due to delayed afterdepolarizations in - AJP
... suggests local, functional block of activation. Isochrones were calculated and drawn by hand. VT mechanisms were standard and defined
as described elsewhere (1, 2, 36), including focal VT occurring when
the electrode recording the earliest SOO was surrounded on six sides
by other electrodes within 1 ...
Information Processing in the Rostral Solitary Nucleus: Modulation
... responses, however, the formula for entropy does not handle negative numbers, i.e.
inhibitory responses. On the other hand, the noise to signal ratio rarely confronts this
problem because the response to the 2nd best stimulus is virtually never inhibitory, but
this measure ignores the 3rd and 4th-be ...
Long-term depression (LTD), in neurophysiology, is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus. LTD occurs in many areas of the CNS with varying mechanisms depending upon brain region and developmental progress. LTD in the hippocampus and cerebellum have been the best characterized, but there are other brain areas in which mechanisms of LTD are understood. LTD has also been found to occur in different types of neurons that release various neurotransmitters, however, the most common neurotransmitter involved in LTD is L-glutamate. L-glutamate acts on the N-methyl-D- asparate receptors (NMDARs), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionicacid receptors (AMPARs), kainate receptors (KARs) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) during LTD. It can result from strong synaptic stimulation (as occurs in the cerebellar Purkinje cells) or from persistent weak synaptic stimulation (as in the hippocampus). Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the opposing process to LTD; it is the long-lasting increase of synaptic strength. In conjunction, LTD and LTP are factors affecting neuronal synaptic plasticity. LTD is thought to result mainly from a decrease in postsynaptic receptor density, although a decrease in presynaptic neurotransmitter release may also play a role. Cerebellar LTD has been hypothesized to be important for motor learning. However, it is likely that other plasticity mechanisms play a role as well. Hippocampal LTD may be important for the clearing of old memory traces. Hippocampal/cortical LTD can be dependent on NMDA receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), or endocannabinoids. The result of the underlying-LTD molecular mechanism is the phosphorylation of AMPA glutamate receptors and their elimination from the surface of the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapse.LTD is one of several processes that serves to selectively weaken specific synapses in order to make constructive use of synaptic strengthening caused by LTP. This is necessary because, if allowed to continue increasing in strength, synapses would ultimately reach a ceiling level of efficiency, which would inhibit the encoding of new information.