Mass Functions in Fractal Clouds: The Role of Cloud Structure in the

... This result implies that turbulent interstellar clouds produce dense substructure with the observed pre-stellar core mass function built in from the start. Details of the clump formation processes are not critical. The conversion of clumps into stars involves a second step. A one-to-one corresponden ...

... This result implies that turbulent interstellar clouds produce dense substructure with the observed pre-stellar core mass function built in from the start. Details of the clump formation processes are not critical. The conversion of clumps into stars involves a second step. A one-to-one corresponden ...

THE HELIACAL RISE OF SIRIUS- Algorithm

... Egyptian sacred year and civil year coinciding every 1460 years, the heliacal rise of Sirius is of utmost importance for Egyptian and world chronology and history1. In Babylonia it is well attested in MUL.APIN- the first textbook in Astronomy in cuneiform2. It was a prominent event also in the meteo ...

... Egyptian sacred year and civil year coinciding every 1460 years, the heliacal rise of Sirius is of utmost importance for Egyptian and world chronology and history1. In Babylonia it is well attested in MUL.APIN- the first textbook in Astronomy in cuneiform2. It was a prominent event also in the meteo ...

undergraduate celestial co

... altitude = measured from horizon towards zenith (positive) or nadir (negative) from +90º to –90º. Alternate: zenith distance, z = 90º – altitude. ...

... altitude = measured from horizon towards zenith (positive) or nadir (negative) from +90º to –90º. Alternate: zenith distance, z = 90º – altitude. ...

Chapter 3 How Earth and Sky Work

... zenith. To find these declinations, count off the 90 from the observer’s zenith. This isn’t the same o o o as adding or subtracting 90 , since the Declination system goes only from +90 to –90 . The declination values where the horizon cuts the Celestial Sphere are equal and opposite values. Declinat ...

... zenith. To find these declinations, count off the 90 from the observer’s zenith. This isn’t the same o o o as adding or subtracting 90 , since the Declination system goes only from +90 to –90 . The declination values where the horizon cuts the Celestial Sphere are equal and opposite values. Declinat ...

Impact of atmospheric refraction: How deeply can we probe exo

... this paper, the top of the atmosphere, Rtop , is chosen 120 km above Rp where atmospheric absorption and refraction are negligible across our spectral region of interest (0.4 - 5 µm). The composition of Earth’s atmosphere with altitude is shown in Figure 3. The main refractors in the Earth’s atmosph ...

... this paper, the top of the atmosphere, Rtop , is chosen 120 km above Rp where atmospheric absorption and refraction are negligible across our spectral region of interest (0.4 - 5 µm). The composition of Earth’s atmosphere with altitude is shown in Figure 3. The main refractors in the Earth’s atmosph ...

Chapter 2 CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS

... The vertical circle that connects the north point of the horizon, the zenith, and the south point of the horizon is very special and is known as the Local Celestial Meridian (LCM). In the diagram, the LCM is the only vertical circle that lies in the plane of the paper. The Local Celestial Meridian ...

... The vertical circle that connects the north point of the horizon, the zenith, and the south point of the horizon is very special and is known as the Local Celestial Meridian (LCM). In the diagram, the LCM is the only vertical circle that lies in the plane of the paper. The Local Celestial Meridian ...

Using a Sextant Altitude The Concept Celestial Navigation Position

... The “d” correction is found in the same manner as for “v” by going to the appropriate Increments and Corrections page to obtain the appropriate correction from the right hand “v and d” section. The direction in which to apply the “d” correction (North or South) is determined by examining the next ho ...

... The “d” correction is found in the same manner as for “v” by going to the appropriate Increments and Corrections page to obtain the appropriate correction from the right hand “v and d” section. The direction in which to apply the “d” correction (North or South) is determined by examining the next ho ...

Binary mass ratios: system mass not primary mass

... Janson et al. (2012; see also Bergfors et al. 2010). Janson et al. (2012) find from a detailed analysis of their large sample that an underlying uniform mass ratio distribution is most likely, i.e. α ∼ 0 (see their section 7.1). M-dwarfs have a binary fraction of around 30–40 per cent (Fischer & Mar ...

... Janson et al. (2012; see also Bergfors et al. 2010). Janson et al. (2012) find from a detailed analysis of their large sample that an underlying uniform mass ratio distribution is most likely, i.e. α ∼ 0 (see their section 7.1). M-dwarfs have a binary fraction of around 30–40 per cent (Fischer & Mar ...

Math Skill density Honors

... 7. Moon rocks are samples of the moon’s crust that were collected and returned to Earth by crew members of the various Apollo missions. Many of the moon rocks are made of basalt, a light, volcanic rock with a density of about 2.7 g/cm3. If a moon rock has a mass of 432 g, what is its volume? ______ ...

... 7. Moon rocks are samples of the moon’s crust that were collected and returned to Earth by crew members of the various Apollo missions. Many of the moon rocks are made of basalt, a light, volcanic rock with a density of about 2.7 g/cm3. If a moon rock has a mass of 432 g, what is its volume? ______ ...

Density Problems

... 15. The density of sea water is slightly higher than that of fresh water. The higher density is due to the fact that sea water contains salts such as sodium chloride and magnesium chloride. Suppose you have a container that holds 5.00 kg of freshwater, which has a density of 1.00 g/cm3. If 5.00 kg o ...

... 15. The density of sea water is slightly higher than that of fresh water. The higher density is due to the fact that sea water contains salts such as sodium chloride and magnesium chloride. Suppose you have a container that holds 5.00 kg of freshwater, which has a density of 1.00 g/cm3. If 5.00 kg o ...

PPT presentation

... mass loss at the tip of the AGB – Bowen models approximate nonLTE, transfer and dust processes for O-rich stars ...

... mass loss at the tip of the AGB – Bowen models approximate nonLTE, transfer and dust processes for O-rich stars ...

Angle d = Latitude Angle c = Altitude Polaris Angle c

... Remember Declination is always measured from the celestial equator to the object. Note: If the star is north of the zenith (i.e. the angle measured from the celestial equator to the zenith > latitude, say 50 deg, then Alt = 90 + (Phi + Dec) rather than (90 – Phi) + Dec Alt = 90 + Our Observing Latit ...

... Remember Declination is always measured from the celestial equator to the object. Note: If the star is north of the zenith (i.e. the angle measured from the celestial equator to the zenith > latitude, say 50 deg, then Alt = 90 + (Phi + Dec) rather than (90 – Phi) + Dec Alt = 90 + Our Observing Latit ...

Composition and Mass Loss

... As a star evolves Z becomes more important as the energy generation involves Z (CNO dominates in higher mass stars, if there is CNO) The Teff position of the red giant branch is insensitive to Y or Z but the luminosity varies by a factor of 4 according to Y/Z Composition and Mass Loss ...

... As a star evolves Z becomes more important as the energy generation involves Z (CNO dominates in higher mass stars, if there is CNO) The Teff position of the red giant branch is insensitive to Y or Z but the luminosity varies by a factor of 4 according to Y/Z Composition and Mass Loss ...

Chapter 9 powerpoint presentation

... where mH /mHe = ¼, is just the ratio of atomic weights, A. ...

... where mH /mHe = ¼, is just the ratio of atomic weights, A. ...

Local Horizon View

... For our location at 45 degrees latitude, the pole star is at altitude 45 degrees as shown to the right. We can see that when we look up. This diagram shows that the altitude of Polaris above the horizon is the same as the observer's latitude. Note that the lines drawn to Polaris are parallel because ...

... For our location at 45 degrees latitude, the pole star is at altitude 45 degrees as shown to the right. We can see that when we look up. This diagram shows that the altitude of Polaris above the horizon is the same as the observer's latitude. Note that the lines drawn to Polaris are parallel because ...

The Celestial Sphere - George Mason University

... • Because the Earth's equator is 90° away from the north pole, the celestial equator as seen in LA will arc up to 90 - 34 = 56˚ above the southern horizon at the point it crosses the meridian. • It still intercepts the horizon due east and west. • The stars rise in the E, move in arcs parallel to th ...

... • Because the Earth's equator is 90° away from the north pole, the celestial equator as seen in LA will arc up to 90 - 34 = 56˚ above the southern horizon at the point it crosses the meridian. • It still intercepts the horizon due east and west. • The stars rise in the E, move in arcs parallel to th ...

Planetary Fact Sheet – Metric

... 14. How far is the celestial equator from your zenith if your latitude is 42N? 34S? This question requires a fairly complete understanding of the celestial coordinate system and the celestial sphere model. According to the last sentence on page 43 “if a star’s declination matches your latitude it ...

... 14. How far is the celestial equator from your zenith if your latitude is 42N? 34S? This question requires a fairly complete understanding of the celestial coordinate system and the celestial sphere model. According to the last sentence on page 43 “if a star’s declination matches your latitude it ...

ASTRONOMICAL SURVEYING - I - IDC

... Source : http://www.nprcet.org/e%20content/Misc/e-Learning/CIVIL/IV%20SEMESTER/CE2254%20-%20SURVEYING ...

... Source : http://www.nprcet.org/e%20content/Misc/e-Learning/CIVIL/IV%20SEMESTER/CE2254%20-%20SURVEYING ...

Central Temperature and Density of Stars in Gravitational Equilibrium

... Central Temperature and Density of Stars in Gravitational Equilibrium 505 First, for the case , of a homogeneous star a polytropic relation is assumed to hold between the pressure and density throughout the whole interior. Secondly, for a star having a shell structure our consideration is confined ...

... Central Temperature and Density of Stars in Gravitational Equilibrium 505 First, for the case , of a homogeneous star a polytropic relation is assumed to hold between the pressure and density throughout the whole interior. Secondly, for a star having a shell structure our consideration is confined ...

ASTR 1020 Homework Solutions

... since the mass of the Earth compared to the mass of the Sun (or to the mass of the hypothetical star) is negligible. If the semimajor axis of the hypothetical planet orbiting the hypothetical star is 1 AU, then that's the same as the Earth's semimajor axis. So, if (m1 + m2) increases by a factor of ...

... since the mass of the Earth compared to the mass of the Sun (or to the mass of the hypothetical star) is negligible. If the semimajor axis of the hypothetical planet orbiting the hypothetical star is 1 AU, then that's the same as the Earth's semimajor axis. So, if (m1 + m2) increases by a factor of ...

15 May 2011 Gas Giants, (Rigel, Betelgeuse, Aldebaran etc

... The application of formulations belonging to the UDS permits a dramatic advancement in the description of the Universal reality. When I came across the evaluation of the important category of stellar masses commonly called gas giants an unusual feature came to my attention, since the reported mass v ...

... The application of formulations belonging to the UDS permits a dramatic advancement in the description of the Universal reality. When I came across the evaluation of the important category of stellar masses commonly called gas giants an unusual feature came to my attention, since the reported mass v ...

ASTR 1020 Homework Solutions Chapter 1

... inferior planet, we must use the first equation in Box 4-1 on page 71: 1/P = 1/E + 1/S = 1/1 + 1/0.317 = 1 + 3.15 = 4.15. So, P = 1 / 4.15 = 0.241 years = 88 days (as shown in Table 4-1 on page 70). 36. Mercury takes longer to go from greatest western elongation to greatest eastern elongation than v ...

... inferior planet, we must use the first equation in Box 4-1 on page 71: 1/P = 1/E + 1/S = 1/1 + 1/0.317 = 1 + 3.15 = 4.15. So, P = 1 / 4.15 = 0.241 years = 88 days (as shown in Table 4-1 on page 70). 36. Mercury takes longer to go from greatest western elongation to greatest eastern elongation than v ...

Astronomy Assignment #1

... passes through the zenith at a particular time in Rome, how many hours later will it pass through the zenith in Boston? This question was not assigned, but questions like it may appear on the exam, as stated in the study guide. This question requires knowledge of the relationship between the celesti ...

... passes through the zenith at a particular time in Rome, how many hours later will it pass through the zenith in Boston? This question was not assigned, but questions like it may appear on the exam, as stated in the study guide. This question requires knowledge of the relationship between the celesti ...

1 - GEOCITIES.ws

... Horizon of the observer– is the great circle having the zenith and the nadir a s the poles. Declination of a point in the celestial sphere – is the angular distance north or south of the celestial equator. It is positive if it is north of the celestial equator and negative if it south of the celesti ...

... Horizon of the observer– is the great circle having the zenith and the nadir a s the poles. Declination of a point in the celestial sphere – is the angular distance north or south of the celestial equator. It is positive if it is north of the celestial equator and negative if it south of the celesti ...

# Air mass (astronomy)

In astronomy, air mass (or airmass) is the optical path length through Earth’s atmosphere for light from a celestial source. As it passes through the atmosphere, light is attenuated by scattering and absorption; the more atmosphere through which it passes, the greater the attenuation. Consequently, celestial bodies at the horizon appear less bright than when at the zenith. The attenuation, known as atmospheric extinction, is described quantitatively by the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law.“Air mass” normally indicates relative air mass, the path length relative to that at the zenith at sea level so, by definition, the sea-level air mass at the zenith is 1. Air mass increases as the angle between the source and the zenith increases, reaching a value of approximately 38 at the horizon. Air mass can be less than one at an elevation greater than sea level; however, most closed-form expressions for air mass do not include the effects of elevation, so adjustment must usually be accomplished by other means.In some fields, such as solar energy and photovoltaics, air mass is indicated by the acronym AM; additionally, the value of the air mass is often given by appending its value to AM, so that AM1 indicates an air mass of 1, AM2 indicates an air mass of 2, and so on. The region above Earth’s atmosphere, where there is no atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation, is considered to have“air mass zero” (AM0).Tables of air mass have been published by numerous authors, including Bemporad (1904), Allen (1976),and Kasten and Young (1989).