Cortisol modifies extinction learning of recently acquired fear in men
... from prior studies in our laboratory (Stark et al., 2006; Merz et al.,
2013) and included an additional extinction phase. A total of 16 CSþ
and 16 CS trials were presented in the acquisition and in the extinction phase (total time for each session: 10 min). During acquisition,
the onset of the UCS ...
Cortisol modifies extinction learning of recently acquired fear in men
... windows (cf. Prokasy and Ebel, 1967): the maximum amplitude within
a window of 1–5 s after the CS onset was counted as the first interval
response (FIR), within 5–8.5 s as the second interval response (SIR),
and within 8.5–13 s as the unconditioned response. The FIR reflects an
orienting response, w ...
Social regulation of aggression by pheromonal activation of Or65a
... indicate that activation of Or65a ORNs is important for social modulation of male aggression, demonstrate that the acute and
chronic effects of a single pheromone are mediated by two distinct types of ORNs, reveal a behaviorally important role for
interneurons and suggest a chemical method to reduce ...
Arial - Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network
... environmental safeguards for resilience
Damage and recovery, particularly for
MSMEs, depends as much on business
environment as it does on the intensity of
Financial products are often slow,
inaccessible or ill-designed for MSMEs,
undermining small business growth and
The Journal of Neuroscience http://jneurosci.msubmit.net Ana
... of section and thus under-estimates the total number. Nevertheless, it does provide comparisons
across treatment groups analyzed in the identical manner. The number of visible spines was
counted on apical tertiary dendritic segments of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons. Based on
their shape, spines wer ...
Layer II/III of the Prefrontal Cortex: Inhibition by the Serotonin
... anxiety levels. Layer II/III of the prefrontal cortex, which mediates communication across cortical regions, displays a high level of 5-HT1A
receptor binding in normal individuals and a significantly lower level in patients with mood and anxiety disorders. Here, we examine how
serotonin modulates py ...
Comparative Study of c-Fos Expression in Rat Dorsal Vagal
... Fig. 3. Gastric erosions induced by RWIS. Data are presented
as means ± SEM (n = 5 or 6). Erosion indices (EI) were
increased time-dependently during RWIS. Tukey’s post
hoc test, columns without a common letter represent
a significant difference at P < 0.05.
Central mechanisms regulating coordinated cardiovascular and
... the cutaneous vasoconstriction that is initially evoked is associated with cerebral vasodilation, such that cerebral blood flow
is increased at a time when the salience of the stimulus needs
to be assessed. Regardless of the physiological significance of
the initial orienting reflex, however, it has ...
... for other societies will be to identify opportunities
presented by these changes and to recognize and
develop strategies to address their potential negative
consequences. (Policy Research Sub-Committee on
Social Cohesion, 1997)
4 - Radboud Repository
... importance of cognitive appraisal (Lazarus, 1993). He argued that stress occurs when the individual concludes that there is an imbalance between the demands posed and the response
capabilities available in a given situation. Stress therefore results from the judgment that specific demands threaten p ...
Exercise and Anxiety Take Home Messages
... ii. In CA1, CA3 and hilus
1) Not in DG
b. Exercise on a running wheels (voluntary) for 12h increases hippocampal BDNF mRNA
i. 12h exercise → ↑ BDNF exon 1 transcript in DG, hilus, and CA3
ii. 12h exercise → ↑ BDNF exon 2 transcript in CA1
c. Exercise distance run positively correlates with BDNF mRNA ...
Effects of lithium and valproate on amphetamine
... Recent studies have consistently reported increased products of lipid peroxidation and alterations of the major antioxidant enzymes in people with bipolar disorder (BD).1–3 It has
been widely demonstrated that the generation of reactive
oxygen species (ROS) plays a critical role in the pathophysiolo ...
- Journal of Adolescent Health
... PTSS severity and prebedtime cortisol levels at baseline predicted greater reduction in hippocampal volume, while controlling for pubertal maturation and gender. This was the ﬁrst longitudinal study on PTSD to document an association between
hippocampal changes with PTSS and with a biological marker ...
Chapter 13 Stress and Glucocorticoid Contributions to Normal and
... susceptibility to GCaccelerated aging. One factor that may contribute to subpopulations with increased GC release is
the presence of neuropathological conditions in that subpopulation. There are a number of conditions, including
Alzheimer’s disease  and depression , that result in high le ...
Neuroimaging findings in post-traumatic stress disorder Systematic
... localised functional changes include
increased activation of the amygdala after
symptom provocation (which may reflect
its role in emotional memory) and
decreased activity of Broca’s area atthe
same time (which may explain the
difficulty patients have in labelling their
Conclusions Evi ...
Stress, serotonin, and hippocampal neurogenesis
... Stress could also affect different levels of the monoamine metabolic
pathway (synthesis, intracellular trafﬁcking, degradation, and reuptake), which could in turn inﬂuence electrochemical signalling
(Holmes, 2008). Notably, environmental context may also play a
role in the interaction between stress ...
... cascade is the adolescent’s perception of some change in the
environment. Sensory stimuli from the external environment
are perceived, processed, categorized through the visual system, and relayed to the central perceptual circuitry in the brain,
including the occipital cortex, the superior temporal ...
Can Oxytocin function as an antidepressant?
... correlation in depression. In relapse periods HPA activity is elevated, indicating it
coincides with a depressed state. When the depression subsides HPA activity
normalizes. HPA activity is already used as a tool in measuring depressions and
relapse chances. The DEX/CRH test has proven to be a very ...
Corticosteroid–serotonin interactions in the
... (Glue et al., 1993). The purpose of the stress response is to maintain
homeostasis (Sapolsky, 2003), which include a series of physiological reactions such as endocrine activation (especially of the
hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal – HPA axis) and cardiovascular
changes, which, per se, do not produce p ...
... conditioning, suggesting that PTSD involves either different or more profound emotional dysregulation than other
anxiety disorders. Direct comparisons of functional abnormalities between disorders within the context of a single study are, however, rare. Quantitative meta-analysis
can help resolve th ...
Stress effects on memory
... 2007). Another important factor might be whether the memory
is tested immediately after learning when noradrenaline levels
peak, slightly later when particularly glucocorticoids levels are high
or even later when all hormone levels have returned to baseline
although through genomic action, the hormo ...
... IsoP levels are increased in animal models of
human diseases and human disorders associated
with oxidant stress.
Anxiety Disorders 2017 Class Handouts
... establish the brain regions that are involved in these two types of learning.
In the case of contextual learning, both the hippocampus and the amygdala
are required, with the hippocampus involved in learning the spatial cues of the
cage, whereas the amygdala is involved in the fear memories themselv ...
Social stress is stress that stems from one's relationships with others and from the social environment in general. A person experiences stress when he or she does not have the ability or resources to cope when confronted with an external stimulus (stressor), or when they fear they do not have the ability or resources. An event which exceeds the ability to cope does not necessarily have to occur in order for one to experience stress, as the threat of such an event occurring can be sufficient. This can lead to emotional, behavioral, and physiological changes that can put one under greater risk for developing a mental disorder and physical illness.Humans are social beings by nature, as they typically have a fundamental need and desire to maintain positive social relationships. Thus, they usually find maintaining positive social ties to be beneficial. Social relationships can offer nurturance, foster feelings of social inclusion, and lead to reproductive success. Anything that disrupts or threatens to disrupt their relationships with others can result in social stress. This can include low social status in society or in particular groups, giving a speech, interviewing with potential employers, caring for a child or spouse with a chronic illness, meeting new people at a party, the threat of or actual death of a loved one, divorce, and discrimination. Social stress can arise from one's micro-environment (e.g., family ties) and macro-environment (e.g., hierarchical societal structure). Social stress is typically the most frequent type of stressor that people experience in their daily lives and affects people more intensely than other types of stressors.