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Chapter 22 Organic Chemistry
Chapter Opener
__Chapter Overview, TE Review the objectives listed in the Student Edition.
Section 1 Organic Compounds
PACING: 45 minutes
PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY:
3.4.A.9 Understand that carbon can form several types of compounds.
Objectives
1. Explain how the structure and bonding of carbon lead to the diversity and number of
organic compounds.
2. Compare the use of molecular and structural formulas to represent organic compounds.
3. Compare structural and geometric isomers of organic compounds.
FOCUS (5 minutes)
__ Lesson Starter, TE Students work in groups to develop as many molecules as possible in
five minutes from a worksheet you have created.
MOTIVATE (10 minutes)
__Visual Strategy, Figure 4, TE Have students make a ball-and-stick model for ethanol using
gumdrops and toothpicks.
TEACH (20 minutes)
__PowerPoint
__Demonstration, TE Have students use models to construct the isomers of C5H12 and C6H14,
and then draw the structural formulas.
__Table Strategy, Table 1, Physical Properties of the Structural Isomers Butane and
2-Methylpropane, TE Point out the differences in melting and boiling points for the two
butane isomers, and then explain the difference in terms of intermolecular attraction.
__Historical Chemistry, The Beginnings of Organic Chemistry, SE Organic chemistry was
originally thought of as distinct from other types of chemistry because it emphasized the
study of compounds that came from living organisms.
__Skills Practice Experiment, Carbon, ANC
CLOSE (10 minutes)
__Section Review, SE Students answer end-of-section vocabulary, key ideas, critical thinking,
and interpreting graphics questions.
OTHER RESOURCE OPTIONS
__Study Guide, Section Review
__Section Quiz
__Chemical Content, EXT Go to go.hrw.com for another version of this content, especially
Carbon and Hydrocarbons and Other Organic Compounds.
Section 2 Hydrocarbons
PACING: 90 minutes
PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY:
3.1.E.1 Describe how fundamental science and technology concepts are used to solve practical problems;
3.4.A.9 Understand that carbon can form several types of compounds.
Objectives
1. Distinguish among the structures of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons.
2. Write structural formulas and names for alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes.
3. Relate properties of different types of hydrocarbons to their structures.
FOCUS (5 minutes)
__ Lesson Starter, TE Write the structural formulas of methane, ethane, propane, and butane on
the board, and ask students to predict the formula for the next hydrocarbon in the series.
TEACH (75 minutes)
__PowerPoint
__Table Strategy, Table 2, Alkanes with One to Four Carbon Atoms, TE Point out that each
of the formulas is part of a homologous series, and ask students why there are no isomers
listed for the hydrocarbons with only one, two, or three carbon atoms.
__Table Strategy, Table 4, Some Straight-Chain Alkyl Groups, TE Have students identify
all the alkyl groups of 3-ethyl-2,4,5-trimethyloctane and 5-butyl-2,2-dimethylnonane.
__ Careers in Chemistry, Petroleum Engineer, SE Petroleum engineers must apply
engineering, chemistry, geology, physics, and mathematics to their work.
__Sample Problem A, SE Demonstrate how to name alkane molecules
__Practice Problems A, SE Students name alkane molecules.
__Table Strategy, Table 5, Properties of Straight-Chain Alkanes, TE Be sure students
recognize that the boiling point of the alkane increases as the number of carbon atoms
increases.
__ Reading Skill Builder, Comparing and Contrasting, TE Students should compare and
contrast saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.
__ Chemistry in Action, Carbon Allotropes, SE Carbon occurs in several different bonding
patterns, with different properties, as in diamond and graphite.
__Sample Problem B, SE Demonstrate how to name alkene molecules
__Practice Problems B, SE Students name alkene molecules.
__Application, TE The smallest alkene, ethane, is responsible for stimulating fruit to ripen.
CLOSE (10 minutes)
__Section Review, SE Students answer end-of-section vocabulary, key ideas, critical thinking,
and interpreting graphics questions.
OTHER RESOURCE OPTIONS
__Study Guide, Section Review
__Section Quiz
__Additional Sample Problems, TE Demonstrate how to draw condensed structural formulas
and name alkenes.
__Additional Practice Problems, EXT Students can practice more problems that ask them to
name alkanes and alkenes.
__Additional Example Problems, TE Demonstrate how to name and draw structural formulas
for alkynes.
__Chemistry in Action, EXT Go to go.hrw.com for a full-length article on synthetic diamonds.
__Graphing Calculator, Hydrocarbon Formulas, EXT Go to go.hrw.com for a graphing
calculator exercise that asks you the formula of any straight-chain hydrocarbon, given the
number of carbon atoms and the number of double bonds in the compound.
Section 3 Functional Groups
PACING: 45 minutes
PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY:
3.4.A.9 Understand that carbon can form several types of compounds.
Objectives
1. Define functional group and explain why functional groups are important.
2. Identify alcohols, alkyl halides, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, and
amines based on the functional group present in each.
3. Explain the relationships between the properties and structures of alcohols, alkyl halides,
ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, and amines.
FOCUS (5 minutes)
__ Lesson Starter, TE Have students make as many different molecules as they can with
toothpicks and up to 4 gumdrops of one color, to represent carbon atoms, and up to 10
gumdrops of another color, to represent hydrogen atoms. Repeat the activity with the addition
of two gumdrops of a third color to represent oxygen atoms.
MOTIVATE (10 minutes)
__Discussion, TE Ask students to find examples in this chapter in which common names rather
than IUPAC names have been used.
TEACH (20 minutes)
__PowerPoint
__Discussion, TE Ask students to suggest factors that might affect the equilibrium between
monatomic oxygen, diatomic oxygen, and ozone that exists in the stratosphere.
(ADVANCED STUDENTS)
__Application, TE Because of ozone depletion, CFCs are being replaced as refrigerants by
hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
__Using the Handbook, TE More information on O3 can be found with Group 16 of the
Elements Handbook.
__Visual Strategy, Figure 14, TE Have students identify the carbonyl group in each of the
structural formulas and classify each compound as either an aldehyde or a ketone.
(GENERAL)
__Inquiry Experiment, A Cloth of Many Colors, ANC (ADVANCED STUDENTS)
CLOSE (10 minutes)
__Section Review, SE Students answer end-of-section vocabulary, key ideas, critical thinking,
and interpreting graphics questions.
OTHER RESOURCE OPTIONS
__Study Guide, Section Review
__Section Quiz
Section 4 Organic Reactions
PACING: 45 minutes
PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY:
3.2.A.2 Know that science uses both direct and indirect observation means to study the world and the
universe;
3.2.B.1 Describe materials using precise quantitative and qualitative skills based on observations;
3.2.B.2 Develop appropriate scientific experiments: raising questions, formulating hypotheses, testing,
controlled experiments, recognizing variables, manipulating variables, interpreting data, and producing
solutions;
3.2.B.3 Use process skills to make inferences and predictions using collected information and to
communicate, using space / time relationships, defining operationally;
3.2.C.2 Evaluate the appropriateness of questions;
3.2.C.4 Conduct a multiple step experiment;
3.2.C.5 Organize experimental information using a variety of analytic methods;
3.2.C.6 Judge the significance of experimental information in answering the question.
Objectives
1. Describe and distinguish between the organic reactions: substitution, condensation, and
elimination.
2. Relate some functional groups to some characteristic reactions.
3. Identify the two main types of polymers and the basic reaction mechanisms by which
they are made.
FOCUS (10 minutes)
__ Lesson Starter, TE Demonstrate an addition reaction that tests for double bonds in oils by
using an iodine solution and mineral oil.
TEACH (25 minutes)
__PowerPoint
__ Application, TE Hydrogenation of vegetable oils produces products such as margarine and
cooking fats, which are easy to package and store.
__ Using the Handbook, TE The uses of H2SO4 as a dehydrating agent are also discussed with
Group 16 of the Elements Handbook.
__Visual Strategy, Figure 18, TE Show students the recycling symbol on the bottom of a juice
bottle and have them hypothesize why this type of polymer is more easily recycled than other
types. (ADVANCED STUDENTS)
__Chapter Lab, Inquiry Lab, Polymers and Toy Balls, SE Synthesize rubber and the ethanol
silicate polymer and test their properties.
__Datasheet for In-Text Lab, Polymers and Toy Balls, ANC Students use the datasheet to
complete the Chapter Lab.
__Inquiry Experiment, The Slime Challenge, ANC (ADVANCED STUDENTS)
__Skills Practice Experiment, Polymers, ANC
CLOSE (10 minutes)
__Section Review, SE Students answer end-of-section vocabulary, key ideas, critical thinking,
and interpreting graphics questions.
OTHER RESOURCE OPTIONS
__Study Guide, Section Review
__Section Quiz
__Chemistry in Action, EXT Go to go.hrw.com for a full-length article about materials called
high-barrier plastics.
End of Chapter Review and Assessment
PACING: 45 minutes
__Chapter Review, SE Students answer questions organized by section and as a mixed review.
__Math Tutor, Calculating Empirical Formulas, SE Students find the empirical formulas for
compounds.
__Chapter Test A, Organic Chemistry, ANC Assign questions for general level chapter
assessment
OTHER RESOURCE OPTIONS
__Standardized Test Prep, SE Have students complete the standardized test prep to help them
prepare for standardized tests.
__SciLinks Visit www.scilinks.org, maintained by the National Science Teachers Association,
for information on Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Compounds, and Polymers.
__CNN Video, CNN Presents Science in the News: Chemistry Connections Segment 5,
Making Fullerenes; Segment 6, Cleaner Glass; Segment 16, Carbon Nitride; Segment 18,
Chemical Separation Techniques; and Segment 22, Belching Cows
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