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Transcript
January 21, 2015
 Agenda
– Ancient Cultures
Warm-up
Tell me what you know
about the Aztec, Incan and
Mayan cultures.
B.C.E. (B.C.= Before Christ) stands for
"Before the Common Era" when we are
discussing historic timelines.
C.E. (A.D.= After Death of Christ) stands
for "Common Era" when we are
discussing historic timelines.
The western calendar is measured starting
with his birth, meaning he was born in the
year 0. However, most scholars and
historians now agree that he was likely
born several years before.
Early Human
Migrations
Maya
Who were the Maya?
Where?
 Southern Mexico, Belize,
Guatemala
When?
 1000BC to about 1000AD
What kind of people?
 Small city states, farmers and traders.
 Mathematicians- Invented the 0 in
36BC, before most people.
 Astronomers- Maya calendar is still
accurate, very complex.
 Advanced cities - Chichen Itza, Tulum,
Palenque, Tikal
What happened to Maya?
 Overpopulated cities collapsed
 Survivors dispersed throughout Central
America
 Culture diffused because of trade and
military alliances
 Unlike the relatively centralized Aztec
and Inca empires, the Maya civilization
was a loose aggregation of city-states.
Lands of the Mayans
The Yucatan
Peninsula
Chichen-Itza Pyramid
Chichen-Itza - Observatory
Chichen-Itza - Ball
Court
Overview of Tikal
(Guatemala)
Temple of the Masks
Tikal Jungle View at
Sunset
Tikal - Main Court
Tikal:
Temple of
the Masks –
Guatemala
For more
info. click
here
Mayan Glyphs
sky
king
house
child
Mayan
Mathematics
city
Mayan Glyphs
Who were the Aztec?
Where
 Central Mexico
 Capital city was Tenochtitlan, on Lake Texcoco.
When?
 1300AD to 1500AD
What kind of people?
Hierarchical society
–
–
–
–
–
–
1. Emperor
2. Nobles
3. Warriors
4. Farmers
5. Slaves
Empire centered on war and religious sacrifice
What happened to Aztecs?
 Defeated by Hernan de Cortez (Spanish) in 1519, with
native allies
 Most Aztecs later died from European diseases, such as
Smallpox
 Mestizo- Interbreeding made a new Mexican “race”, ½
Indian ½ Spanish.
Aztecs
Lands of the Aztecs
Aztec View of
Tenochtitlan
Ruins of the City
Center, Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan: The “Venice” of the
Americas
Aztec Chinampa or
Floating Garden:
15ft. to 30ft. wide
Tenochtitlan – Chinampas
Aztec Writing
Aztec Math
Aztec Sun Stone - Calendar
Aztec Sun Motifs
Aztecs Sacrifice
Neighboring Tribes to
the Sun God
Heart Sacrifice on an
Aztec Temple Pyramid
Wall of Skulls,
Tenochtitlan
Sacrificial Statue,
Tenochtitlan
Aztec Gold
Who were the Inca?
Where
 Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador ,Chile(Andes Mountains)
 Capital was Cuzco, Peru
 Machu Picchu was last stronghold of Inca
When?
1200AD to 1533AD
What kind of people?
 Similar to Aztec, not as warlike
 Empire was large, structured, and advanced
 Famous for gold art and statues
 Terrace farming on mountainsides,
 Extensive road network. (20,000 miles)
 Polytheistic religion
 Quechua Language – still spoken
What happened to the Inca?
 Defeated by Francisco Pizarro in 1533
 Incans enslaved to mine gold and silver for Spain.
Lands of the
Incas
Cuzco: Ancient Capital of the
Inca
(11,000 ft. above sea level)
Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
Incan Suspension Bridges
Incan Terrace Farming
Maize in Incan Pottery
& Gold Work
Over 100 Different Types of
Potatoes Cultivated
by the Incans
Incan Ceramic Jars
Peanut
Cacao God
Potato
Cacao Pod
Squash
The Quipu: An Incan Database
Inca Gold & Silver
The Nazca Lines
The Nazca are shrouded in mystery. Estimated dates
of the civilization's existence are 300 B.C. to 800 A.D.
Even more intriguing are the Nazca Lines, about 300
geolyphs carved into the Pampa coastal plains of Peru,
an area south of Lima and the contours of the Andes.
In total, the lines cover almost 400 square miles of
desert. But the methods behind the creation and the
purpose of the lines are still unknown.
Nazca Lines video - 3 min.
Guns, Germs, and Steel
As you watch the video answer the questions
that you have written down.