January 21, 2015 Agenda – Ancient Cultures Warm-up Tell me what you know about the Aztec, Incan and Mayan cultures. B.C.E. (B.C.= Before Christ) stands for "Before the Common Era" when we are discussing historic timelines. C.E. (A.D.= After Death of Christ) stands for "Common Era" when we are discussing historic timelines. The western calendar is measured starting with his birth, meaning he was born in the year 0. However, most scholars and historians now agree that he was likely born several years before. Early Human Migrations Maya Who were the Maya? Where? Southern Mexico, Belize, Guatemala When? 1000BC to about 1000AD What kind of people? Small city states, farmers and traders. Mathematicians- Invented the 0 in 36BC, before most people. Astronomers- Maya calendar is still accurate, very complex. Advanced cities - Chichen Itza, Tulum, Palenque, Tikal What happened to Maya? Overpopulated cities collapsed Survivors dispersed throughout Central America Culture diffused because of trade and military alliances Unlike the relatively centralized Aztec and Inca empires, the Maya civilization was a loose aggregation of city-states. Lands of the Mayans The Yucatan Peninsula Chichen-Itza Pyramid Chichen-Itza - Observatory Chichen-Itza - Ball Court Overview of Tikal (Guatemala) Temple of the Masks Tikal Jungle View at Sunset Tikal - Main Court Tikal: Temple of the Masks – Guatemala For more info. click here Mayan Glyphs sky king house child Mayan Mathematics city Mayan Glyphs Who were the Aztec? Where Central Mexico Capital city was Tenochtitlan, on Lake Texcoco. When? 1300AD to 1500AD What kind of people? Hierarchical society – – – – – – 1. Emperor 2. Nobles 3. Warriors 4. Farmers 5. Slaves Empire centered on war and religious sacrifice What happened to Aztecs? Defeated by Hernan de Cortez (Spanish) in 1519, with native allies Most Aztecs later died from European diseases, such as Smallpox Mestizo- Interbreeding made a new Mexican “race”, ½ Indian ½ Spanish. Aztecs Lands of the Aztecs Aztec View of Tenochtitlan Ruins of the City Center, Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan: The “Venice” of the Americas Aztec Chinampa or Floating Garden: 15ft. to 30ft. wide Tenochtitlan – Chinampas Aztec Writing Aztec Math Aztec Sun Stone - Calendar Aztec Sun Motifs Aztecs Sacrifice Neighboring Tribes to the Sun God Heart Sacrifice on an Aztec Temple Pyramid Wall of Skulls, Tenochtitlan Sacrificial Statue, Tenochtitlan Aztec Gold Who were the Inca? Where Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador ,Chile(Andes Mountains) Capital was Cuzco, Peru Machu Picchu was last stronghold of Inca When? 1200AD to 1533AD What kind of people? Similar to Aztec, not as warlike Empire was large, structured, and advanced Famous for gold art and statues Terrace farming on mountainsides, Extensive road network. (20,000 miles) Polytheistic religion Quechua Language – still spoken What happened to the Inca? Defeated by Francisco Pizarro in 1533 Incans enslaved to mine gold and silver for Spain. Lands of the Incas Cuzco: Ancient Capital of the Inca (11,000 ft. above sea level) Machu Picchu Machu Picchu Incan Suspension Bridges Incan Terrace Farming Maize in Incan Pottery & Gold Work Over 100 Different Types of Potatoes Cultivated by the Incans Incan Ceramic Jars Peanut Cacao God Potato Cacao Pod Squash The Quipu: An Incan Database Inca Gold & Silver The Nazca Lines The Nazca are shrouded in mystery. Estimated dates of the civilization's existence are 300 B.C. to 800 A.D. Even more intriguing are the Nazca Lines, about 300 geolyphs carved into the Pampa coastal plains of Peru, an area south of Lima and the contours of the Andes. In total, the lines cover almost 400 square miles of desert. But the methods behind the creation and the purpose of the lines are still unknown. Nazca Lines video - 3 min. Guns, Germs, and Steel As you watch the video answer the questions that you have written down.