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Grammar Review
 Quarter
Basic Sentence
Nouns
Pronouns
Verbs
Adjectives
Direct/Indirect Objects
Prepositions
One

 Definition:
Nouns
is a person, place, thing or idea.
 Examples: friend, aunt, brother, house, restaurant,
button, pants, honesty, creativity
 Functions: subject, predicate nominative or noun,
direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition
 Categories of nouns: concrete, abstract, common,
proper, compound, plural, possessive, and
collective
 Nouns
Concrete Nouns
Definition: name things that one might be
able to touch or see such as grass, floors, or
ceiling.
Abstract nouns
Definition: name things that are intangible.
Examples:
honesty, philosophy, evil, and freedom.
Nouns
Compound Nouns
 Definitions: two words that have been joined to form a new
word.
 Examples: backbone, fingernail, ice cream, six-year-old
Plural Nouns
 Definitions: show that there is more than one of something
such as dogs, walls, or tables.
 Generally, the plural of a noun is formed by just adding s.
 Other nouns form the plural by changing the word; these are
irregular plurals. Examples are children, boxes, and alumni
Nouns
Possessive Nouns
 Definition: nouns that show ownership
 Usually they precede the item which is being owned
 Examples: Bill’s farm, the dog’s collar, or Katie’s room.
 Ending: just an apostrophe and an s.
Nouns that end in s form possessives with just an apostrophe.
 Examples: Hendricks’ house or Jess’ toys
 Other nouns have irregular plurals; there are no rules for these.
 Examples: The plural of child is children; the plural of goose is
geese, and the plural of cactus is cacti.

Collective Nouns
 Definition: nouns appear to be singular but actually refer to a
group.
 Examples: staff, class, herd, flock
Collective nouns require a singular verb when the group acts as
a whole.
 Examples: The staff are holding a meeting at 3pm. The flock
eat at 6am every day. The class will be meeting after lunch
today.
 Collective nouns require a plural verb when the members of
the group are acting individually.
 Examples: The jury are still deliberating. The flock eats a
variety of foods at 6am every day.


Pronouns
 Definition:
a word that takes the place of a noun or a
group of nouns
 Types: Singular Subject,Plural Subject, Singular Object,
Plural Object
Singular Subject
Plural Subject
Singular Object
Plural Object
I,
we
me
us
you
you
you
you
he, she, it
they
him, her, it
them

 Definition:
Verbs
a word that describes the action of the
subject(s) in a complete sentence
 The tense of a verb tells WHEN an action takes
place.
Types
 Present tense is happening NOW or happens
regularly.
 Past tense has already happened.
 Future tense will take place in the future.

 Definition:
Adjectives
modifies a noun or a pronoun.
 Examples: green, old, funny, large, awesome, first
 Functions: modifier; predicate adjective
 Categories of adjectives: predicate adjective, proper
adjectives, definite, indefinite, numerical, positive,
comparative, superlative
 Questions that Adjectives answer in sentences
Which? Which one? What kind? How many? Whose?

 Definition:
Proper Adjectives
are proper nouns used to describe or an
adjective that is derived from a proper noun.
 Examples:
 Let’s have a June wedding.
(the proper noun June is used to describe the wedding)
 Here is a Grecian urn from around 324 AD.
(the proper adjective Grecian is derived from the
proper noun Greek and describes the urn)

Definitive Adjectives
Definitive Adjectives
Sample Sentences
Definite
That, those, this,
these, the
That book is really heavy.
These apples will rot soon.
Indefinite
A, An, Any, some,
which, what, many,
much, either
Either door leads to the
hallway.
Which book do you need?
Do I have any volunteers?
Numerical
Cardinal numbers
such as one, six, or
50
I bought six juice boxes
yesterday.
Would you give me 92
toothpicks?
Ordinal numbers
such as first, last, or
sixteenth
May I go first?
Your project was the
sixteenth to be submitted.
Adjectives
 Articles
-most commonly used adjectives are a, an,
and the.
 A and an are indefinite articles because they do not
point out specific persons, places, things, or ideas.
 The is a definite article because it points out a
particular person, place, thing, or idea.

 Predicate
Adjectives
Adjectives
 Definition: describe the subject of a sentence because
they follow a linking verb.
 Examples
 His hair is messy.
(messy links back to hair)
 My last report card was ugly!
(ugly links back to card)
 Your new car is awesome.
(awesome links back to car)

 Noun
Adjectives
Used As Adjectives
Some nouns, possessive nouns, and pronouns may also be
used as adjectives.
 Examples
 She is a history professor.
(history is a noun functioning as an adjective because it tells
what kind of professor she is)
 Alyson’s house is just around the corner.
(Alyson’s is a possessive noun that describes house)
 Her dog just bit me!
(her is a possessive pronoun functioning as an adjective that
tells whose dog did the biting)

Direct Objects
 Definition:
follows an action verb and receives the action of
the verb. Nouns or pronouns function as direct objects.
 Asks yourself What is receiving the action of the verb?
 Examples:
D.O.
She
wrote a journal entry about a current event.
D.O.
The dog carried the newspaper to the house.
D.O.
I love him!
D.O.
D.O.
Clean your room!

 Definition:
Indirect Objects
is the person or object to whom or for whom
the action of the verb has been completed. Most often, the
IO is a person or living thing.
 Rarely do you see a sentence with an IO that does not
have a DO.
 Ask yourself Who/Whom is receiving the action in the
sentence?
 Examples:
I.O
 She gave him a note.
I.O
 My aunt knitted me a sweater.
I.O
I.O
 The boss bought my colleague and me lunch.

 Definition:
Prepositions
expresses the relationship between a noun and
a pronoun and another word in a sentence.
 Functions: alone or at the beginning of a prepositional
phrase.
 A preposition is a word that expresses the relationship
between a noun or pronoun and another word in the
sentence. Without prepositions, we could not express
where one item was in relationship to another.
 Examples:
 over, under, to, before, behind, within

 Definition:
Prepositional Phrase
composed of a preposition and the
object of the preposition.
 It may also contain a modifier for the object of the
preposition.
 Components of a Prepositional Phrase
 Preposition (always first)
 Modifier (optional)
 Object of the Preposition (a noun or pronoun;
always ends the phrase)

Prepositional Phrase
 Examples:
Prepositional
Phrase
Preposition
Modifier
(optional)
Object Of The
Preposition
In the morning
In
the
morning
Into a long
passageway
Into
a long
passageway
For you
For
Outside of my
window
Outside of
you
my
window

Prepositional Phrase
Functions:
They
may function as adjectives to
modify nouns or pronouns.
They may also function as adverbs to
modify verbs, adjectives or adverbs.
They may function as nouns to be
subjects or predicate nominatives.

Prepositional Phrases
 Examples:
 Under
my bed is filthy!
(under my bed functions as the subject of the
sentence)
 The best time to call is between six and ten.
(between six and ten functions as the predicate
nominative to rename time)

Prepositional Phrases
 Examples:
 The
music on my iPod is diverse.
On my iPod is the PP functioning as an adjective
modifying music (which?)
 I play my iPod in my car, at home, and on the end
of the pier.
In my car, at home, and on the end are PPs
functioning as adverbs that modify the verb play
(where?); of the pier is a PP functioning as an
adjective modifying the noun end (which?)