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Unit 7 Objective A
ECOLOGY
Vocabulary
 Community
 Group
of various species that live in the same
place and interact with each other
 Ecosystem
 The
group of species along with the living and
nonliving environment
Biotic Factors

Bio means…
 Biotic
factors are the relationship
between living organisms in an ecosystem
 Humans
pick flowers
 Coyotes
eat chickens
Abiotic factors


A means….
Bio means…
 Abiotic
factors are physical or nonliving
factors of an ecosystem


Oxygen, water, sunlight, temperature, rocks, climate,
buildings
Tropical rainforests have lots of different plants and
animals

Tropical rainforests have plenty of water to drink, food to
eat, places to live/hide
Habitat
 The
place where an organism lives
Biodiversity

Bio means… Diversity means….
 Biodiversity
is the variety of living
organisms in a given area

Affected by abiotic factors
 Extreme
temperatures
 Limited water
 Limited food

Affected by biotic factors
 Predators
 Human
habitat destruction
Biodiversity

High biodiversity
 Ecosystem
 Better

that is healthy
able to resist change (disaster)
Low biodiversity
 Ecosystem
 NOT
that is Unhealthy
able to resist change (disaster)
 Ecosystem
can crash
Succession
What happens after a disaster??

Replacement of one community
by another at a single place over
a period of time

Pioneer species
 First
species to appear in a newly
made habitat


Help break down the damage so that other
species may grow
Pioneer species is then replaced by
next generation
Succession
• Major change in ecosystem
– Volcano, glacier receding, etc.
• Ecosystem is destroyed
• Pioneer species take root in new ecosystem.
– Begins the restoration of damaged ecosystem
• Pioneer species is then replaced by new species
• That new species is then replaced and so on
Succession
Succession
Equilibrium
•
A condition which results in a stable,
balanced, or unchanging system
•
After damage  work towards equilibrium
Climate
• Two key factors of climate
– Temperature
• Animals usually live within a certain range of temperatures
– Precipitation
• Amount of precipitation determines the amount of water
available for organisms
• Little water means few organisms
Trophic Levels
 One

of the steps in a food chain
Refers to the transfer of energy when 1 organism
consumes another
Trophic Levels

Producers
 AUTOTROPHS

- produce their own food
Consumers
 HETEROTROPHS

Decomposers
– consume their food
Food Chains

The FIRST level is PRODUCERS




The SECOND level is CONSUMERS

Primary Consumer

Herbivores eat the carbohydrates the producers produced
The THIRD level is CONSUMERS

Secondary Consumer

Small Carnivores
Animals that eat herbivores
Animals that eat other animals



They take energy from the sun and convert it into carbohydrates
They “produce” food
The FOURTH level is CONSUMERS

Tertiary Consumer

Large Carnivores

Animals that eat other carnivores
Food Web

Animals eat more than 1 kind of food

We use food webs to illustrate these complicated
interactions
10% Rule

Of the 100% of food we eat…
 90%
is given off as heat, digested, excreted, etc.
 10% is kept within our bodies (growth)

Producer – Plant


Consumer – Herbivore


10% passed on
10% passed on
Consumer - Carnivore
Ten Percent Rule
Energy Pyramid