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B.10A: Interactions in Animals
B.10A: Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of
regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals.
✪ Readiness Standard
1. An animal’s body consists of organs and systems that are unified and interact to
conduct the functions of life, including maintaining homeostasis, metabolizing
nutrients, reproducing new organisms, and pursuing survival through defense and
mobility. No single life process can be achieved without the integration of multiple
body systems.
2. The digestive system converts food into simpler substances for the body to
absorb as nutrients. Nutrient absorption is possible through ingestion and
digestion in organisms. Digestion breaks down bonds of molecules with the help
of enzymes. Breakdown of food also provides energy for all body functions.
3. The excretory system filters water and fluids from the blood while also collecting
waste urine.
4. All organisms strive to reproduce and pass their genes to the next generation.
The reproductive system allows animals to continue as a species by fertilizing a
female ovum with a male sperm through sexual reproduction.
5. Organisms strive for survival through defense from injury or illness through
internal and external systems. The immune system responds to pathogens and
provides defenses to the body’s systems from disease. The integumentary system
continuously receives communication with the external environment
(temperature, humidity, etc.) and protects the body’s deeper tissues. It excretes
waste, helps rid the body of heat, and synthesizes vitamin D.
6. The nervous system sends immediate and specific information as electrical
impulses for organisms to respond to external stimuli in environment. The
endocrine system controls growth, reproduction, and metabolism through the
regulated release of hormones.
absorption, antibody (antibodies), circulatory system, diaphragm, digestion, digestive
system, ectotherm, endocrine system, endotherm, epidermis, esophagus, excretion,
ligament, lymphatic system, muscular system, nephron, nervous system, pancreas,
reproduction, reproductive system, respiration, respiratory system, response, skeletal
system, stimuli, tendon, thermoregulation
Fundamental Questions
Use the Key Concepts information as well as the information in your Stemscopedia
beginning on page 115 to answer the fundamental questions below.
1. How do systems in animals interact to achieve nutrient management?
2. Which systems in animals interact to achieve reproduction?
3. How do systems in animals interact to protect them from injury or illness?
4. What is the role of homeostasis in system regulation?
Complete the following in the space provided.
1) Explain the body system involved in keeping the body regulated and in homeostasis.
2) Describe the body systems involved in reproduction.
3) Discuss the systems involved in protecting it from injury or illness.
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