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Theories of Behavior Timeline
PSY/420 Version 2
University of Phoenix Material
Theories of Behavior Timeline
Complete the following table by reordering the theorists according to the relevant date (and providing
these dates), writing at least 90 words to describe what the particular theorist was known for and a realworld application of the theory.
Name of
theorist
Relevant
dates
Description of what the theoriest is
known for
Real-world application of the theory
J. Locke
16741700
He was an English physician,
philosopher and a theorist of politics
as well. He was most famous and
known for his mind-blowing theories
about liberalism. He is also known
as father of liberalism. He
revolutionized the world with unique
and innovative school of thought
which was never pondered before,
named as British Empiricism.
Before John Locke the philoshophical
concept of Empiricism was also
discussed and researched bty David
Hume and Francis Bacon. John
Locke modified and shaped it to its
real form that whatever knowledge
we possess is the result of our
experiences and observations
through our senses. We have
acquired all our knowledge by means
of different life experiences and
observations. This theory and
concept of empiricism played a great
role in development of study of
psychology and philosophy in the
future.
W. Wundt
1879
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt was a
German psychologist, philosopher,
physician and teacher who made
remarkable additions in cultural and
experimental psychology. He is most
famous for his work in both of these
fields of psychology. He was actually
the father or founder of psychology
because he was the person who, for
the first time in history, named
himself as a psychologist.
Wundt, for the first time, not only
differentiated psychology from
philosophy and biology but also build
an experimental laboratory in the
University of Leipzig. He introduced
the term “introspection” for the first
time in the science of psychology
which was extremely used later.
Introspection or self-analysis is a
simple psychological experiment in
which a person is asked or allowed to
judge or assess his own thought,
intentions, ideas and perception.
I. Pavlov
1902
He was both a psychologist and
physiologist. Ivan Pavlov was best
known for his theory of “classical
conditioning” which refers to the
concept that a neutral stimulus
alongwith a strong stimulus can
result in initiation of an inherent
response. This means that in order
to produce an innate response, both
strong and neutral stimulus are
required.
The process of classical conditioning
has a number on influences on
human behavior and and responses.
The impace of this theory can be
seen in a person’s response of
arousal, anger, extreme fear, hunger
or any kind of severe phobia.
Whenever a person is at height of
specific kind of emotions, he respond
exactly according to the theory of
classical conditioning.
J. Thorndike
1922-
Being an American psychologist, J.
The theory of connectionism refers to
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Theories of Behavior Timeline
PSY/420 Version 2
1928
Thorndike was most famous for his
theory of connectionism. This theory
is the major and main reason why
J.Thorndike is known as father of
modern educational psychology. He
had only covered educational
psychology but also made re-known
explorations in behavioural
psychology.
the learning process which result by
formation of association between the
stimuli and their respective
responses and grows or becomes
weak by the frequency and strength
of this response-stimuli connection.
This theory also consisted three
important laws. Law of effect was one
them. the theory played a remarkable
role in the education process
including mathematics, assessment
of intelligence and learning of adults.
F. Keller
19311964
Fred Simmons Keller was an
Americal psychologist and a
professor of psychology at Columbia
University for 26 years of his life. He
is best known for his Keller plan
(named after him) which is also
called “Personalized System of
Instruction” which is a teaching
method.
Kellar plan (PSI) was a brilliant
teaching method and it played a
great role in the field of educational
psychology. This plan has a broad
range of applications in the field of
mastery and instruction as it is
applicable to almost every kind of
teaching environment and level. It
can be applied to schools teaching,
bank training and even military
training and instruction period.
B.F. Skinner
1938
He was surely a truly gifted person
as he was a psychologist,
philosopher, discoverer and writer.
Among his remarkable
accomplishments, he is best known
for his theory of operant conditioning
which was discussed in his book
named “The behavior of organisms”
published in 1938.
Operant or instrumental conditioning
refers to a type of learning behavior
in which the consequences of the
individual are modified according to
the reinforment or punishment
experienced by the individual. This
theory alongwith classical
conditioning introduced a new side of
humans and animals behavioural
psychology. This theory formed the
base of the behavioral analysis of
both human and animals in the 20th
century.
I. Lovaas
1950
Ole Ivar Løvaas was a clinical
psychologist in America and also a
professor at University of California.
He was the forger in the field of
applied behavior analysis (ABA) by
making the distinction by developing
the “Discrete trail training (DTT)”
procedure.
Discrete trial training is a very simply,
innovative and amazing method for
helping the children or adults
suffering from psychological
problems like autism. In this method,
we just divide the whole procedure
into 7-8 short steps or tasks making it
shorter, easier and by the helf of
different types of designs, models
and drawings, a lot more easier for
the kids to remember.
Ogden
Lindsley
1960
Ogden Lindsley was an Americal
psychologist and among her other
great and remarkable contributions,
she was worldly famous for her
theory of “Precion Training”. It was
Preicion training is an extremely and
absolutely simple and easily
applicable technique or method of
instruction. All the instructor or
teacher have to do is to check out the
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Theories of Behavior Timeline
PSY/420 Version 2
also a contribution to the field of
applied behavioral analysis and was
widely appreciated and still applied.
rate of fluency of each individual in
the class or gathering and then he
would set up his instruction fluency
according to the speed of fluency of
each and every individual. This
method, by application, has turned
out to be extremely useful to increase
the ability of learning of also every
age group of people.
A. Bandura
1961
Albert Bandura is a genius
psychologist who is also a professor
of psychology at Stanford University.
He has done a lot in th field of
psychology that has to be remember
but he is best and most known for
his social cognitive theory.
Social cognitive theory (SCT) is not
only applicable in psychology but
also in education and communication
studies. This extremely useful theory
is concerned with the fact that people
not only learn the things and
innovative behaviors they adapt by
only learning or education but also by
seeing or observing other people and
the consequences of their behaviors,
this things gives them an urge or a
slope for the learned behavior.
J. Watson
1962
James Watson was an American
biologist specialized in molecular
biology. He was best and most
reknowned for his discovery of
“Nucleic acids” in 1962 alongwith
other two scientists and was
awarded a Nobel prize because of
this discovery and its importance as
nucleic acids are the components
involved in the transfer of most
important information in the living
being at the cellular level.
His discovery of nucleic acids literally
revolutionized the world of molecular
biology. Nucleic acids are one of the
major, important and vital
macromolecules including
carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.
This discovery opened a new way of
immensed knowledge and research
to explore and helped a lot in
understanding the infrastructure of
the genetic materian inside the living
beings.
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Theories of Behavior Timeline
PSY/420 Version 2
References
Alvarado, N. CHAPTER 4 – WILHELM WUNDT AND THE FOUNDING OF PSYCHOLOGY. Retrieved
from https://www.cpp.edu/~nalvarado/PSY410%20PPTs/Chap4.pdf
Definition of learning. . Retrieved from http://www.psych.purdue.edu/~willia55/120/7.LearningCCMM.pdf
Eyre, H. L. (2008). The behavior analyst today Keller’s personalized system of instruction: Was it a
fleeting fancy or is there a revival on the horizon? Retrieved from
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1820/ca372ea4ede5d74316765ce3aa288b11c5ea.pdf
Smith, T., & Eikeseth, S. (2010). O. Ivar Lovaas: Pioneer of applied behavior analysis and intervention for
children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(3), 375–378.
doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1162-0
Thorndike, E. L. (1949). 6 Thorndike. . Retrieved from
http://fac.hsu.edu/ahmada/3%20Courses/2%20Learning/Learning%20Notes/6%20Thorndike.pdf
Trotman, S. (2010). Comparative analysis of Charles Darwin and James Watson. Retrieved from
http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/16173/?sequence=1
Retrieved February 10, 2017, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html
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