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OpenStax Psychology Test Bank
Chapter 06: Learning
Chapter 06: Learning
* = Correct answer
Multiple Choice
1. Dave’s boss told him that he doesn’t have to attend the company picnic (which everybody
dislikes) if Dave meets his sales quota this month. Dave’s boss is using ________.
A. negative punishment
*B. negative reinforcement
C. positive punishment
D. positive reinforcement
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.3, 2.1
2. If a stimulus plus a response results in a satisfying outcome, the probability of that response
occurring again ________.
A. decreases
B. depends on the CS-UCS relationship
*C. increases
D. is not affected
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 2.1
3. In classical conditioning, the association that is learned is between a ________.
A. conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned response
B. neutral response and a conditioned response
C. neutral stimulus and a neutral response
*D. neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 2.1
4. Harold catches fish throughout the day at unpredictable intervals. Which reinforcement
schedule is this?
A. fixed interval
B. fixed ratio
*C. variable interval
D. variable ratio
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Chapter 06: Learning
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.3, 2.1
5. To maximize learning, a ________ should be presented on a(n) ________ schedule.
*A. CS + UCS; continuous
B. CS + UCS; intermittent
C. UCS alone; continuous
D. UCS alone; intermittent
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
6. You call a friend on the phone and repeatedly get sent to voicemail, so you continue to call her
every 5–20 minutes hoping to speak to her personally. Which reinforcement schedule is this?
A. fixed interval
B. fixed ratio
*C. variable interval
D. variable ratio
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.3, 2.1
7. What are innate behaviors that are triggered by a broader range of events, such as aging and
the change of seasons?
A. conditions
*B. instincts
C. operants
D. reflexes
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 2.1
8. What do psychologists call a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that
results from experience?
A. conditioning
B. instincts
*C. learning
D. reflexes
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.1
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Chapter 06: Learning
9. Classical and operant conditioning are forms of ________ learning.
*A. associational
B. instinctive
C. processual
D. reflexive
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
10. Which of the following is a process by which we learn to associate stimuli and, consequently,
to anticipate events?
*A. classical conditioning
B. controlled conditioning
C. physiological conditioning
D. psychic conditioning
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
11. In ________ conditioning, an established conditioned stimulus is paired with a new neutral
stimulus.
*A. higher order
B. initial
C. primary
D. secondary
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
12. In the initial period of learning, ________ describes when an organism learns to connect a
neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus.
*A. acquisition
B. conditioning
C. extinction
D. neutral stimulate
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
13. Which of the following is the decrease in the conditioned response when the unconditioned
stimulus is no longer presented with the conditioned stimulus?
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Chapter 06: Learning
A. acquisition
*B. extinction
C. recovery
D. reflex
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
14. ________ is known for using Little Albert in his studies on human emotion.
A. B. F. Skinner
B. Edward Thorndike
C. Ivan Pavlov
*D. John B. Watson
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2
15. In operant conditioning, what describes adding something to decrease the likelihood of
behavior?
A. acquisition
B. extinction
*C. punishment
D. recovery
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
16. Which term best describes rewarding successive approximations of a target behavior?
A. acquisition
B. learning
C. reinforcement
*D. shaping
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
17. ________ reinforcers have innate reinforcing qualities.
A. classical
B. operant
*C. primary
D. secondary
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Chapter 06: Learning
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
18. When an organism receives a reinforcer each time it displays a behavior, it is called________
reinforcement.
*A. continuous
B. partial
C. primary
D. secondary
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
19. Who experimented with rats to demonstrate that organisms can learn even if they do not
receive immediate reinforcement?
A. B. F. Skinner
*B. Edward C. Tolman
C. Ivan Pavlov
D. John B. Watson
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2
20. Learning that occurs but is not observable in behavior until there is a reason to demonstrate it
is called ________ learning.
A. conditioned
*B. latent
C. partial
D. primary
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
21. Learning that occurs while watching others and then imitating, or modeling, what they do or
say is called ________ learning.
A. latent
*B. observational
C. Pavlovian
D. vicarious
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
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Chapter 06: Learning
22. Which process involves observing a model being punished and then becoming less likely to
imitate the model’s behavior?
A. latent acquisition
B. latent punishment
*C. vicarious punishment
D. vicarious reinforcement
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
23. In ________ reinforcement, the person or animal is not reinforced every time a desired
behavior is performed.
A. continuous
*B. partial
C. primary
D. secondary
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
24. In operant conditioning, ________ is when something is removed to increase the likelihood
of a behavior.
*A. negative reinforcement
B. positive reinforcement
C. punishment
D. punishment reinforcement
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
25. Which of the following is an example of instinct: unlearned knowledge that involves
complex patterns of behavior?
*A. baby seeking food by rooting and suckling
B. believing that nudity is wrong
C. teacher demonstrating algebra to students
D. toddler who is toilet training
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
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Chapter 06: Learning
26. Which of the following is an example of a reflex: an unlearned, automatic response by an
organism to a stimulus in the environment?
A. becoming angry at your friend for raising his voice
B. becoming bored at a wedding
C. sitting very still in the classroom
*D. the pupil of your eye contracting in the presence of bright light
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.3, 2.1
27. Julian watches his grandfather repair watches. As Julian matures he imitates what his
grandfather does, and then his grandfather shows him more complicated techniques. Eventually,
Julian is as proficient at repairing watches as his grandfather. This exemplifies ________.
A. instinct
*B. learning
C. reflex
D. stimulus
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
28. Dymesha watches her older sister do headstands. Dymesha falls over when she attempts to
do a headstand herself. She watches her older sister more carefully, and she notices that her sister
leans backward slightly to complete her headstand. Dymesha is then able to do headstands
herself. Which type of learning is this?
A. classical
B. conditioning
*C. observational
D. operant
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.3, 2.1
29. In ________ conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus unconditionally elicits a reaction. For
example, a bit of black pepper blown into the eye produces a blinking response.
*A. classical
B. operant
C. response
D. stimulus
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
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Chapter 06: Learning
30. Grace whistles while tickling Khaleel with a feather. Eventually, Khaleel starts to squirm and
giggle every time Grace whistles, even when he is not being tickled. In this example, squirming
and giggling is a(n) ________.
*A. conditioned response
B. conditioned stimulus
C. unconditioned response
D. unconditioned stimulus
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
31. Kieran is attempting to condition a parrot to greet him when he enters the room. He
repeatedly pairs his entry to the room with a treat for the parrot. Kieran can say that ________
has occurred as soon as the parrot greets him in response to his entry.
*A. acquisition
B. extinction
C. secondary conditioning
D. stimulation
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
32. Dimitri and Rita eat some donuts for breakfast and then spend the morning at an amusement
park. After a few hours of riding the Super Looper Double Twist Dimitri feels nauseous and
regurgitates the donuts. Rita is fine, but Dimitri has developed a ________, and the next time
they stop for donuts, Dimitri immediately feels ill.
*A. taste aversion
B. taste response
C. unconditioned aversion
D. unconditioned response
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
33. Mia is taught to go to sleep when the light is turned off. However, for many months Mia no
longer falls asleep when the light is turned off. Later, Mia begins to fall asleep when the light is
turned off again. This is an example of ________.
A. classical conditioning
B. higher order conditioning
C. neutral stimulus
*D. spontaneous recovery
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Chapter 06: Learning
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
34. If a slamming door is a conditioned stimulus, then being able to distinguish between the
sound of a slamming door and the sound of a heavy item being dropped would represent
________.
A. conditioned response
*B. stimulus discrimination
C. stimulus generalization
D. unconditioned response
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
35. Birds migrating, cats chasing prey, sea turtles moving toward the ocean immediately after
birth, and joeys moving to the mother’s pouch immediately after birth are all examples of
________.
A. conditioning
*B. instincts
C. learning
D. reflexes
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 2.1
36. Which of the following is an example of observational learning?
A. learning to speak Spanish by attending Spanish class
*B. teaching yourself yoga by watching a yoga group in the park
C. your brother refusing to play with you
D. your father teaching you how to write by holding your hand as you form the letters
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
37. Kerry is conditioned to fear strawberries. Raspberries are similar to strawberries, and even
though no attempt was made to make Kerry fear raspberries, she reacts with fear when she sees
them. This is an example of ________.
A. imitation
B. modeling
C. stimulus discrimination
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Chapter 06: Learning
*D. stimulus generalization
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
38. Molly attempts to condition her puppy to greet her when she enters the house. She repeatedly
pairs her entry to the house with a treat for the puppy. The puppy eventually acquires this ability,
and Molly realizes how irritating it is for the puppy to run up to her every time she enters the
house. She attempts to make the puppy stop, and eventually the puppy no longer feels motivated
to greet her when she enters the house. The puppy no longer greeting her when she enters the
house is an example of ________.
A. acquisition
B. conditioning
*C. extinction
D. learning
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
39. Which of the following is an example of stimulus generalization?
A. being conditioned not to laugh at hats
B. being conditioned to laugh at all kinds of hats
C. being conditioned to laugh when you see a top hat and cry when you see other kinds of hats
*D. being conditioned to laugh when you see a top hat, then also laughing when you see other
kinds of hats
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
40. Kicking your leg when your knee is tapped and quickly pulling your hand back when you
accidently touch a hot stove are both examples of ________.
A. associations
B. instincts
C. learning
*D. reflexes
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 2.1
41. In classical conditioning, the ________ is an unlearned reaction to a given stimulus. For
example, if you have an allergy to pollen and sneeze, sneezing is an unlearned reaction to the
pollen (i.e., the stimulus).
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Chapter 06: Learning
A. conditioned response
B. conditioned stimulus
*C. unconditioned response
D. unconditioned stimulus
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
42. Which of the following is an example of operant conditioning?
A. when a cat and a dog share the same water bowl
B. when a cat learns to drool at the sound of a can opener
*C. when a dog plays dead she gets a treat in order to encourage her to repeat the behavior
D. when a dog refuses to play dead
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
43. Which of the following is an example of stimulus discrimination?
A. conditioned to associate a bell ringing with food, drooling when the bell rings
B. conditioned to drool only when food is paired with a bell
*C. conditioned to drool when a bell rings and being able to tell the difference between the sound
of a ringing bell and the sound of a whistle
D. conditioned to tell the difference between the sound of the bell and the taste of the food
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
44. Jemma wants to teach her son to say thank you. Every time he says thank you, Jemma praises
him and gives him a hug. Which reinforcement schedule is this?
*A. continuous
B. partial
C. primary
D. secondary
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
45. Gus receives a paycheck every week. Which reinforcement schedule is this?
*A. fixed interval
B. fixed ratio
C. variable interval
D. variable ratio
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Chapter 06: Learning
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
46. John wants to train his daughter to excuse herself before she leaves the table. Although he
does not know how often he will reward her for excusing herself, he does know that he will not
reward her every time she excuses herself. Which reinforcement schedule is John planning to
use?
A. continuous
*B. partial
C. primary
D. secondary
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
47. Frances receives one dollar for every pound of worms she gives her grandfather. Which
reinforcement schedule is this?
A. fixed interval
*B. fixed ratio
C. variable interval
D. variable ratio
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
48. Which of the following is an example of fixed ratio reinforcement schedule?
A. checking your e-mail at random times throughout the day instead of every time you hear the
new e-mail notification
B. feeding your fish every day at 8 a.m.
*C. knowing you will get to play miniature golf as soon as you collect 10 gold stars for your
reward chart
D. playing the slot machine
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
49. Although B. F. Skinner and John B. Watson refused to believe that thoughts and expectations
play a role in learning, ________ suggested a cognitive aspect to learning.
*A. Edward C. Tolman
B. Ivan Pavlov
C. Little Albert
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Chapter 06: Learning
D. Rosalie Rayner
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.1
50. Mabel clicks her tongue while tickling Francis. Eventually, Francis starts to squirm and
giggle every time Mabel clicks her tongue, even when he is not being tickled. In this example,
tongue clicking is a(n) ________.
A. conditioned response
*B. conditioned stimulus
C. unconditioned response
D. unconditioned stimulus
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
51. Gambling at a slot machine is an example of which reinforcement schedule?
A. fixed interval
B. fixed ratio
C. variable interval
*D. variable ratio
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
52. Tabetha has a mental picture of the layout of her house, also called a ________, so when she
comes home late at night she can navigate through the rooms without turning on a light.
*A. cognitive map
B. fixed interval map
C. fixed ratio map
D. latent map
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.3, 2.1
53. Which of the following is an example of a variable interval reinforcement schedule?
A. Julie knows she will get a trampoline if she accumulates enough allowance money
B. Nikita takes her dog for a walk every day at 8 a.m.
C. Viviane plays scratch-off lottery tickets
*D. Winona checks her cellphone at random times throughout the day instead of every time she
hears the voicemail notification
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Chapter 06: Learning
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
54. Ron is taught to use a special numbers trick to check his final answer, but he does not
demonstrate this skill until his end-of-the-year math test. This is an example of ________.
A. cognitive mapping
B. conditioning
*C. latent learning
D. reinforcement
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
55. Gabrielle watches her father put batteries into her toy phone, and she is then able to put the
batteries into the toy phone herself without further instruction from her father. In this example,
Gabrielle’s father is a ________.
A. cognition
*B. model
C. response
D. stimulus
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
56. Which of the following is an example of vicarious punishment?
A. Belinda saw Mavis receive a hug for cleaning his room. She is careful to clean her room
because she saw Mavis get a reward for doing it.
*B. Jeong observes Bronwyn getting spanked for spitting out her carrots. Because he saw his
friend punished, he does not spit out his carrots.
C. Job wants to avoid being fired, so he follows the shop rules and does not smoke in the
bathroom.
D. Laurie wants to receive a smiley sticker and she knows from reading the rulebook that she
will receive one if she behaves herself.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
57. Which of the following is an example of a fixed interval reinforcement schedule?
A. checking your Facebook account at random times throughout the day
B. playing basketball with your friends after completing your chores
C. playing poker
*D. taking your dog to the park every afternoon at 4:00 p.m.
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Chapter 06: Learning
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
58. Which of the following is an example of vicarious reinforcement?
*A. Babs saw Martin receive a candy bar for completing his reading list. She is careful to
complete her reading list because she saw Martin get a reward for doing it.
B. Lana wants to receive a candy bar and she knows from reading the rulebook that she will
receive one if she earns enough good behavior tokens.
C. Park wants to avoid detention, so he follows the school rules and does not smoke on the
playground.
D. Ryan observes Cameron getting a time out for spitting out her toast. Because he saw his
friend punished, he does not spit out his toast.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
59. Which of the following is an example of latent learning?
A. a rabbit knowing to run away from an unleashed dog
B. earning tokens for good behavior and spending the tokens on good behavior prizes
C. learning karate from your best friend who takes karate lessons
*D. remembering where the nearest gas station is when you unexpectedly run out of gas during
your morning commute
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
60. Which of the following is an example of a variable ratio reinforcement schedule?
A. Bill traveling to Myrtle Beach for vacation every June
B. Jeremy checking YouTube every morning before work
*C. Joyce playing scratch-off lottery tickets
D. Nikita taking her dog to the vet once a year
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
61. Hideki tells a lie and is grounded. He does this several times, finally learning that his
behavior (lying) is associated with a consequence (being grounded). Which kind of learning is
this?
A. classical conditioning
B. imitation
C. modeling
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Chapter 06: Learning
*D. operant conditioning
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1
62. What did John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner demonstrate with their studies of Little Albert?
A. boys display fear differently from girls
B. boys display more fear than girls
*C. emotion can be a conditioned response
D. fear cannot be a conditioned response
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
63. Which statement about Edward C. Tolman is incorrect?
A. He disagreed with John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner.
*B. He found that emotions can be a conditioned response.
C. He placed hungry rats in a maze with no reward for finding their way through it, and he
studied a comparison group that was rewarded with food at the end of the maze.
D. His experiments demonstrated that organisms can learn even if they do not receive immediate
reinforcement.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2
64. What is the main idea of social learning theory?
A. Behavior is motivated by the consequences we receive for the behavior: reinforcements and
punishments.
B. Fear is a conditioned response.
C. Learning can occur when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
*D. One can learn new behaviors by observing others.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.1
65. What should be changed to make the following sentence true? In Social Learning Theory, B.
F. Skinner identified three types of models: live, verbal, and symbolic.
*A. The name “B. F. Skinner” should be changed to “Albert Bandura.”
B. The word “models” should be changed to the word “reinforcers.”
C. The words “live, verbal, and symbolic” should be changed to the words “primary, secondary,
and tertiary.”
D. The words “social learning theory” should be changed to the words “classical conditioning.”
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Chapter 06: Learning
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.1
66. Which statement about B. F. Skinner is correct?
*A. He is famous for demonstrating the principles of operant conditioning: The motivation for a
behavior happens after the behavior is demonstrated.
B. He placed hungry rats in a maze with no reward for finding their way through it, and he
studied a comparison group that was rewarded with food at the end of the maze.
C. He worked with Edward C. Tolman to prove that fear is both an instinct and a reflex.
D. His experiments demonstrated that organisms can learn even if they do not receive immediate
reinforcement.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
67. Which experiment involves the use of classical conditioning?
A. blindfolding someone and timing him to see how long he takes to find a button hidden in a
room
B. determining how long it takes a person to learn how to knit if he is only allowed to watch
YouTube videos of people knitting
*C. knowing that a student fears exams, the instructor wears a bright red shirt only on exam day,
every exam day, to see how long it is before the red shirt becomes an object of fear to the student
D. rewarding a boy for finishing his vegetables with ice cream and counting how many nights of
reinforcement are required before he voluntarily eats his vegetables
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
68. If the principles of social learning theory are true, then children may model aggressive
behavior ________.
A. after dreaming about having a fight with their parents
B. after dreaming they were on television
C. after seeing a television character being punished for taking violent action against another
character
*D. after seeing a television character receive a reward for taking violent action against another
character
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.5
69. What was the main point of Ivan Pavlov’s experiment with dogs?
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Chapter 06: Learning
A. Behavior is motivated by the consequences we receive for the behavior: reinforcements and
punishments.
B. Fear is a conditioned response.
*C. Learning can occur when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
D. One can learn new behaviors by observing others.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
70. What should be changed to make the following sentence true? In classical conditioning, the
initial period of learning is known as latent.
A. The word “classical” should be changed to the word “operant.”
B. The word “conditioning” should be changed to the word “behaviorism.”
C. The word “initial” should be changed to the word “interval.”
*D. The word “latent” should be changed to the word “acquisition.”
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
71. Which of the following is false about John B. Watson?
*A. He is considered the founder of behaviorism.
B. He is famous for demonstrating the principles of operant conditioning: The motivation for a
behavior happens after the behavior is demonstrated.
C. He placed hungry rats in a maze with no reward for finding their way through it, and he
studied a comparison group that was rewarded with food at the end of the maze.
D. He worked with Edward C. Tolman to prove that fear is both an instinct and a reflex.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2
72. Which of the following experiments involves the use of operant conditioning?
A. blindfolding someone and timing him to see how long it takes him to estimate the size of a
room
B. determining how long it takes someone to learn how to fish if he is only allowed to watch
other people fishing
C. pairing a puff of air to the eye with seeing the color red in order to find out how many
repetitions it will take for someone to blink when he sees the color red
*D. rewarding a child for finishing his oatmeal mush and counting how many times the child
needs to be rewarded before he finishes his oatmeal voluntarily
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
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Chapter 06: Learning
73. What should be changed to make the following sentence true? Spontaneous acquisition is the
return of a previously extinguished conditioned response.
*A. The word “acquisition” should be changed to the word “recovery.”
B. The word “extinguished” should be changed to the word “acquired.”
C. The word “response” should be changed to the word “stimulus.”
D. The word “spontaneous” should be changed to the word “planned.”
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
74. What is the main idea of operant conditioning?
*A. Behavior is motivated by the consequences we receive for the behavior: reinforcements and
punishments.
B. Fear is a conditioned response.
C. Learning can occur when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
D. One can learn new behaviors by observing others.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
75. According to Albert Bandura, ________.
A. Fear is a conditioned response.
*B. Learning can occur by watching others and modeling what they do or say.
C. Learning is the result of reinforcing desired behavior at fixed intervals.
D. Organisms cannot learn if they do not receive immediate reinforcement.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
76. Which of the following experiments involves the use of social learning theory?
A. blindfolding someone and timing her to see how long it takes her to determine what she is
eating
*B. determining how long it takes a person to learn how to knit if she is only allowed to watch
YouTube videos of people knitting
C. pairing a puff of air to the eye with a handshake to see how long it will take someone to blink
before offering her hand
D. rewarding a girl for finishing her homework with ice cream and counting how much
homework she will complete before becoming sick of ice cream
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 2.4
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Chapter 06: Learning
77. What is the primary conclusion John B. Watson’s made after working with Little Albert?
A. Behavior is motivated by the consequences we receive for the behavior: reinforcements and
punishments.
*B. Emotions can be a conditioned response.
C. Learning can occur when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
D. One can learn new behaviors by observing others.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 2.4
78. Identify the major flaw with John B. Watson’s Little Albert experiment.
*A. It is unethical for a researcher to induce fear in a child, since it is harmful to induce fear.
B. John B. Watson did not have the consent of Little Albert’s mother.
C. John B. Watson falsified most of his data.
D. Little Albert was much older than John B. Watson reported him to be, which invalidated the
study.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 3.1
79. What should be changed to make the following sentence true? In operant conditioning,
organisms learn to associate events that repeatedly happen together.
A. The word “conditioning” should be changed to the word “reinforcement.”
*B. The word “operant” should be changed to the word “classical.”
C. The word “repeatedly” should be changed to the word “never.”
D. The word “repeatedly” should be changed to the word “rarely.”
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1
80. Which of the following statements about Ivan Pavlov is true?
A. He is considered the founder of behaviorism.
B. He is famous for demonstrating the principles of operant conditioning: The motivation for a
behavior happens after the behavior is demonstrated.
*C. He is known for establishing the principles of classical conditioning.
D. He placed hungry rats in a maze with no reward for finding their way through it, and he
studied a comparison group that was rewarded with food at the end of the maze.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2
Short Answer
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Chapter 06: Learning
81. Identify two ways in which instincts are different from reflexes.
Sample Answer: Reflexes are a motor or neural reaction to a specific stimulus in the
environment. Instincts are innate behaviors that are triggered by a broader range of events.
Reflexes are simpler than instincts; instincts involve the organism as a whole while reflexes do
not.
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 2.1, 4.1
82. Name the four reinforcement schedules.
Sample Answer: The four reinforcement schedules are fixed interval, variable interval, fixed
ratio, and variable ratio.
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 4.1
83. List the steps of the modeling process in the order in which they occur.
Sample Answer: First, you must be focused on what the model is doing—you have to pay
attention. Next, you must be able to retain, or remember, what you observed; this is retention.
Then, you must be able to perform the behavior that you observed and committed to memory;
this is reproduction. Finally, you must have motivation.
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 4.1
84. Name the four means of modifying behavior discussed in operant conditioning.
Sample Answer: The four means of modifying behavior are negative reinforcement, positive
reinforcement, negative punishment, and positive punishment.
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 4.1
85. Identify and describe the two kinds of responses and two kinds of stimuli that are key to
classical conditioning.
Sample Answer: The conditioned response (CR) is caused by the conditioned stimulus. The
conditioned stimulus (CS) elicits a response due to it being paired with an unconditioned
stimulus. The unconditioned response (UCR) is the natural (unlearned) behavior to a given
stimulus. The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is the stimulus that elicits a reflexive response.
Difficulty: Easy
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Chapter 06: Learning
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 4.1
86. Mateo has a dog named Princess Sparklewhiskers. Mateo uses classical conditioning to train
Princess Sparklewhiskers to run to the door every time he gets the dog leash. How can he use
higher order conditioning to condition another stimulus?
Sample Answer: He can pair the conditioned stimulus (getting the dog leash), which results in
Princess Sparklewhiskers running to the door, with a second unconditioned stimulus, such as
clapping his hands. Eventually, Princess Sparklewhiskers will run to the door when he claps his
hands, even when he does not have the dog leash.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 3.3. 4.1
87. Explain how you can use vicarious reinforcement and vicarious punishment to teach Adele
how to share her stuffed bunny.
Sample Answer: First, have Adele watch two children playing with a stuffed bunny. Then, offer
positive reinforcement, such as praise, to the child who is sharing her bunny. If the child won’t
share her bunny, then negative punishment can be used to discourage that child. Adele should
then have learned to share her stuffed bunny.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 4.1
88. Provide a real world example of how a video game can have prosocial and antisocial effects.
Sample Answer: If a video game shows characters engaging in violent behavior, the
viewer/player may model this behavior and behave aggressively after watching the game. If a
video game emphasizes and rewards cooperative problem solving, the viewer/player may
likewise model cooperative problem solving in real life.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.3, 2.5, 4.1
89. Explain the conditioning approach to behavior modification.
Sample Answer: An unconditioned stimulus (e.g., food) is paired with a neutral stimulus (e.g., a
bell). The neutral stimulus eventually becomes the conditioned stimulus, which brings about the
conditioned response (e.g., salivation). The stimulus occurs immediately before the response.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 4.1
90. Define latent learning and provide a real life example.
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Sample Answer: Latent learning is learning that occurs, but may not be evident until there is a
reason to demonstrate it. For example, I read my son the same bedtime story every night. When
we are stuck at a doctor’s office without the book, I realize I have memorized the story without
knowing it and can recite it for him without having the book in front of me.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 4.1
91. Explain the difference between a fixed interval reinforcement schedule and a fixed ratio
reinforcement schedule.
Sample Answer: When using a fixed interval reinforcement schedule, behavior is rewarded after
a set amount of time. When using a fixed ratio reinforcement schedule, a predetermined number
of responses must occur before a behavior is rewarded. The difference is when the reward
occurs: after a specific time period versus after a certain number of responses.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 4.1
92. What did the results of the Little Albert experiment indicate about human response?
Sample Answer: John B. Watson succeeded in conditioning a fear response in Little Albert, thus
demonstrating that emotions can become conditioned responses.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 4.1
93. Cooper trains his boyfriend Patrick to avoid eating cake every day by squirting him with a
water pistol every time he sees Patrick moving toward a cake. Eventually, Patrick avoids cakes
altogether. In this example, identify the UCR, UCS, CS, and the CR.
Sample Answer: The UCR is the desire to eat cake. The UCS is squirting Patrick with a water
pistol. The CS is present when Patrick associates cake with being squirted by a water pistol. The
CR is avoiding cake.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 4.1
94. Explain the operant conditioning approach to behavior modification.
Sample Answer: The stimulus (either reinforcement or punishment) occurs soon after the
response. The target behavior is followed by reinforcement or punishment to either strengthen or
weaken the behavior, so that the learner is more likely to exhibit the desired behavior in the
future.
Difficulty: Moderate
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Chapter 06: Learning
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 4.1
95. Explain the difference between a variable interval reinforcement schedule and a variable ratio
reinforcement schedule.
Sample Answer: With a variable interval reinforcement schedule, behavior is rewarded after
unpredictable amounts of time have passed. With a variable ratio reinforcement schedule,
behavior is rewarded after an unpredictable number of responses. The difference is when a
reward is given: after an unpredictable amount of time versus after an unpredictable amount of
responses have occurred.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 4.1
96. How can an alcoholic use the principle of taste aversion to stop drinking?
Sample Answer: Taste aversion is a type of conditioning in which an interval of several hours
may pass between the conditioned stimulus (something ingested) and the unconditioned stimulus
(nausea or illness). Alcoholics who wish to use taste aversion could take an emetic that will
cause vomiting only if alcohol is ingested. If they ingest alcohol they will throw up and gradually
come to associate the taste of alcohol with nausea and avoid alcohol in the future.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.3, 3.3, 4.1
97. Kim trains himself to wake up every day at 7:00 a.m. using the principles of classical
conditioning. After years of waking up every day at 7:00 a.m. he suddenly stops for a few weeks.
Then, for no reason, he finds that he is again able to wake up at 7:00 a.m. every day. How would
someone familiar with classical conditioning explain this?
Sample Answer: Kim experienced extinction: The decrease in the conditioned response when the
unconditioned stimulus is no longer presented with the conditioned stimulus. Then, he
experienced spontaneous recovery: The return of a previously extinguished conditioned response
following a rest period.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 4.1
98. Patricia uses the principles of operant conditioning to train her girlfriend Catherine to make
jokes by laughing at every joke Catherine makes, even when the jokes aren’t funny. Can you
explain how Patricia used operant conditioning?
Sample Answer: The reinforcement of laughing occurs soon after Catherine’s response of telling
a joke. The target behavior (telling jokes) is followed by positive reinforcement (laughter) to
strengthen it, so that Catherine is more likely to tell jokes over time.
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Chapter 06: Learning
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 4.1
99. From an ethical standpoint, compare the Little Albert Experiment to Ivan Pavlov’s
experiments with dogs.
Sample Answer: Ethically, there are no major issues with Ivan Pavlov’s experiments because he
caused the dogs no immediate or lasting harm. The Little Albert experiment resulted in
immediate harm to Little Albert because the experiment induced a phobia. Therefore, the Little
Albert experiment was ethically questionable.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1
100. Provide a real world example of negative punishment.
Sample Answer: a two-year-old child hits his mother, so his mother takes away his favorite toy.
Taking away the toy is the negative punishment.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.3, 2.1, 3.3, 4.1
101. Provide a real world example of positive punishment.
Sample Answer: You are in a hurry so you run a red light. A police officer sees you and writes
you a ticket. The ticket is the positive punishment.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.3, 2.1, 4.1
102. How did the Little Albert experiment, which showed that fear can be a conditioned
response, demonstrate that emotions can be a conditioned response?
Sample Answer: Fear is an emotion. John B. Watson successfully demonstrated that he could
induce fear in a child using operant conditioning. He generalized from this specific response to
conclude that any emotion can be a conditioned response.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 4.1
103. If observational learning plays a role in school violence, what role might it play?
Sample Answer: In observational learning, we learn by watching others and then imitating, or
modeling, what they do or say. It is possible that school violence occurs because children are
imitating violent behavior they see in the media or at home.
Difficulty: Difficult
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Chapter 06: Learning
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.3, 2.5, 3.3, 4.1
104. Describe how you can use the principles of operant conditioning to encourage children to
read.
Sample Answer: In operant conditioning, the event that drives the behavior (the consequence)
comes after the behavior. In order to encourage children to read, a reward should be offered for
reading. For example, have children track, in a reading journal, the amount of time they read and
reward them for milestones, such as reading a total of five hours over a week.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.3, 4.1
105. Can you adjust the Little Albert experiment to make it more ethical?
Sample Answer: The Little Albert experiment was unethical because it used the principles of
operant conditioning to induce fear in a child. A more ethical version would be to use informed
adult subjects and attempt to induce a positive emotion rather than a negative emotion.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1
106. What was Edward C. Tolman’s main contribution to the field of learning?
Sample Answer: Edward C. Tolman’s experiments with rats demonstrated that organisms can
learn even if they do not receive immediate reinforcement. This finding went against the
prevailing idea at the time that reinforcement must be immediate in order for learning to occur.
Thus, Tolman’s main contribution was suggesting a cognitive aspect to learning.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 4.1
Essay
107. Summarize how Ivan Pavlov conducted his study of classical conditioning.
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.4, 4.1
108. Write a brief outline of the Little Albert experiment.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.2, 2.1, 4.1
109. Using examples, compare and contrast classical conditional and operant conditioning.
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Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 4.1
110. Describe, using real life examples, observational learning.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 4.1
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