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• Overall water consumption. More water is now recycled within the
mill. Some pulp mills today have no water emissions.
• Paper based packaging is said to be a waste of resources. It is necessary today to be able to demonstrate that the amount of packaging used is
not excessive and that it is commensurate with the protection needs of
the product thereby preventing product wastage.
• Where paper and paperboard materials are not suitable for material recycling they can still be useful as a source of energy, i.e. incineration with
energy recovery, or compost.
Overall paper and board is a naturally renewable (sustainable) product which
does not pollute the environment in the course of manufacture and use. It is
recyclable as material, energy or compost and, if none of these processes is
practical, it is biodegradable.
Hills, R.L. (1988), ‘Papermaking in Britain 1488–1988’, p. 49.
Further reading
Fundamentals of Packaging Technology by Walter Soroka, revised UK edition by Anne Emblem and
Henry Emblem, published by The Institute of Packaging, ISBN 0 9464 6700 5.
Paperboard Reference Manual published by Iggesund Paperboard AB.
The Carton Packaging Fact File published by Pro Carton UK.
The Packaging User’s Handbook by F.A. Paine, published by Blackie and Son Ltd. under the authority
of The Institute of Packaging, ISBN 0 216 92975 X.
American Forest and Paper Association,
Confederation of European Paper Industries,
Paper Federation of Great Britain,
Websites of the leading manufacturers of papers and paperboards.