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Some of the content in this presentation is brought to you by Grammar Bytes!, ©2012 by Robin L. Simmons. The restchomp! is brought to you by Ms. chomp! Cortese. Working with Words Nouns Here We Go… Let’s review the definitions of common nouns, proper nouns, concrete nouns, abstract nouns, collective nouns, and compound nouns using this song… Nouns A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea. Proper nouns name specific people, places, things, or ideas, and they should be capitalized. The squirrel was vicious, and it attacked Ms. Cortese. Concrete, Abstract, and Collective Nouns A concrete noun is a person, place, thing, or idea that can be seen, heard, or touched. An abstract noun is a person, place, thing, or idea that cannot be seen, heard, or touched. Squirrels are not known for their kindness. Concrete, Abstract, and Collective Nouns A collective noun names a collection, or group, of people, animals, or things. We went to see the litter of puppies. Aren’t they adorable? Showing Possession To show possession, or ownership, add an apostrophe and an “s” to the end of a singular noun. Do you like Ms. Cortese’s new car? Showing Possession To show possession, or ownership, add just an apostrophe to the end of a plural noun that already ends in “s.” Ms. Cortese graded the students’ tests. Showing Possession Not all plural nouns end in “s.” To show possession, or ownership, add an apostrophe and the letter “s” to plural nouns that do not end in “s.” Ms. Cortese took the children’s toys. Singular Possessive Plural Possessive teachers pencils teacher’s pencils teachers’ pencils womans purses woman’s women’s students tests student’s students’ squirrels weapons squirrel’s squirrels’ trees branches tree’s trees’ deers antlers deer’s deer’s Working with Words Pronouns Pronouns and Antecedents A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. The noun replaced or referred to by the pronoun is called the antecedent. The squirrel was vicious, and it attacked Ms. Cortese. Here We Go… Let’s learn more about pronouns by listening to this catchy little tune… Be prepared to answer the following questions: • Why does the pronoun in this song have the blues? • What types of pronouns are listed? Know Your Pronouns! Singular Plural he, she, it him, her, it his, her, hers, its himself, herself, itself Singular! they them their, theirs themselves Plural! Pronouns are AWESOME, but make sure the antecedent of your pronoun is clear to the reader… You don’t want to give your reader a vague pronoun reference! Although the car hit the What does “it” refer to, the car or telephone pole, it was not the telephone pole? damaged. Remember, second -per son pr onouns must r efer to the r eader, and you should not use them in for mal essays! You can find many themes in the short story “Flowers for Algernon.” There are many themes in the short story “Flowers for Algernon.” A FORMAL ESSAY… Wait, like the PROMPT? Pronoun Agreement: Gender The gender of a pronoun must be the same as the gender of its antecedent. Ms. Cortese hates squirrels, but she thinks chipmunks are adorable. Intensive and Reflexive Pronouns A pronoun with –self or –selves attached is either intensive or reflexive. Intensive Not necessary to complete the meaning of the sentence Used to emphasize the noun before it Reflexive Necessary to complete the sentence If you aren’t sure whether a pronoun is intensive or reflexive, remove it from the sentence. If the sentence makes sense without it, the pronoun is intensive. Boy, this parts of speech stuff is pretty INTENSE! Get it? C o ntr ac t i on s a n d P r o n ou ns 1. Ms. Cortese, _____________ you’re going to kill us if you assign any more homework! It’s such a beautiful day! 2. _________ 3. ___________ There is no way I’m going to let Teddy, Noah, and Nathen work together in a group. 4. The abandoned book lay open on the table, ___ its pages fluttering in the breeze. 5. Keep _________ your friends close, but your enemies closer. their 6. Ms. Cortese and Mr. Sherry crossed ____________ arms and glared at the noisy students. they’re 7. I love lima beans; _______________ my favorite vegetable. Pronoun Agreement: Per son Writers must choose either first, second, or third person pronouns. Pronoun Persons First Person I me my, mine myself we us our, ours ourselves Second Person you your, yours yourself, yourselves Know your persons! Third Person he, she, it him, her his, hers, its himself, herself, itself they them their, theirs themselves Working with Words Adjectives Working with Words: Adjectives Listen and watch as Ms. Cortese plays the “Adjective Song” from Grammaropolis. Use the song to list the four questions that adjectives answer and identify the “baby adjectives.” Record this information in your packet. Working with Words: Adjectives Beautiful Trinity Middle School, located in scenic Washington County, is home to the evil English teacher, Ms. Cortese. Adjectives Adjectives modify (describe) nouns or pronouns. That is a beautiful rainbow. This is an adjective because it describes/modifies a noun. Colorful adjectives add life to writing! Adjectives Adjectives answer four questions… Demonstrative Adjectives “That” points out Sometimes the noun Be careful, though… A demonstrative adjective “that,” “this,” “those,” andpoints “these” “puppy,” and “those” helps point out a noun. can function as pronouns. out the noun “shoes.” That puppy loves to chew Give this to the puppy. on those shoes. Proper Adjectives Remember, identifying A properwhen adjective is a word’s part of speech, think about formed from a proper noun the word’s function in the and issentence! capitalized. Shakespearean plays are often studied in English class. Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective? 1. That squirrel is watching me. A. Noun B. Pronoun C. Adjective Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective? 2. He served in the United States Air Force. A. Noun B. Pronoun C. Adjective Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective? 3. Did you see that football game on television last night? A. Noun B. Pronoun C. Adjective Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective? 4. You will fail English class if you do not complete your Study Island assignments! A. Noun B. Pronoun C. Adjective Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective? 5. Is that a spider or a ladybug? A. Noun B. Pronoun C. Adjective Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective? 6. We heard the tornado warning on the radio. A. Noun B. Pronoun C. Adjective Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective? 7. Please take this coffee to Mrs. Lounder. A. Noun B. Pronoun C. Adjective Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective? 8. This is the most ridiculous assignment we have ever completed. A. Noun B. Pronoun C. Adjective Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective? 9. English is a language taught around the world. A. Noun B. Pronoun C. Adjective Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective? 10. Everyone enjoyed the bagpiper’s performance. A. Noun B. Pronoun C. Adjective Predicate Adjectives A predicate adjective follows a linking verb and describes a subject. That kitten is adorable. This is a predicate adjective because it follows a linking verb and describes the subject. Indefinite Adjectives An indefinite adjective gives approximate or indefinite information. Some teachers are nicer than others. This is an indefinite adjective because it does not provide a specific number or type. C o m p a r a t i ve a n d S u p e r l a t i ve Fo r m s Superlative We Comparative use these formforms compares formof 2 compares three adjectives or more two to compare persons, E=mc nouns places,and/or things,pronouns. or ideas. The Theunicorn lobsterisiswiser the wisest than ofthe all creatures. llama. Let’s Practice! Question #1: What do adjectives modify? A. B. C. D. E. Nouns Pronouns Verbs Nouns and pronouns Nouns and verbs Let’s Practice! Question #2: What type of adjective is underlined in the following sentence: Learning is fun. A. Proper adjective B. Demonstrative adjective C. Predicate adjective Let’s Practice! Question #3: What type of adjective is underlined in the following sentence: I have a Siamese cat named Frank. A. Proper adjective B. Demonstrative adjective C. Predicate adjective Let’s Practice! Question #4: What type of adjective is underlined in the following sentence: Those nachos are moldy. A. Proper adjective B. Demonstrative adjective C. Predicate adjective Let’s Practice! Question #5: Which form of adjective is used in the following sentence? That squirrel is meaner than the other one. A. Comparative B. Superlative Let’s Practice! Question #6: Which form of adjective is used in the following sentence? This squirrel is the meanest of all. A. Comparative B. Superlative Working with Words Verbs Here We Go… Let’s review verbs with yet another rocking tune from Grammaropolis… The “Verb Song”! Pay attention to the two different types of verbs described in the song. Record the names for these verbs on the first page of your packet. Verbs Verbs are words that show action or express a state of being. Linking Verb Action Verb Sometimes, “helping verbs” can help to complete the main verb, forming a verb phrase. Ms. Cortese is evil, and she lied to her students. Verbs: Principal Par ts Verbs consist of four principal parts. These principal parts are used to form the different verb tenses. These fours parts are called the base form (infinitive), the present participle, the past form, and the past participle. Re gular Verbs AMost regular verb generally regular verbs forms its past and past that end in e drop the participle by adding –d or e –ed before adding –ing. to the base form. BASE Hope = Hoping stomp PAST stomped Slide = Sliding PAST Have PART. stomped Hike = Hiking PRES. stomping PART. The present participle is formed by adding –ing. Ir re gular Verbs Of course, it can’t be that easy… Some verbs do not fit this pattern, and they are called irregular verbs. BASE know hurt knew hurt form PAST These verbs their past and past PAST participles in some Have Have known hurt PART. other way than by adding –d or –ed. Ir re gular Verbs Some irregular verbs form the past and past participle by changing vowels. Other irregular verbs form the past and past participle by changing consonants. Some Verbs That Change Vowels find found [have] found hold held [have] held ring rang [have] rung swim swam [have] swum Some Verbs That Change Consonants bend bent [have] bent build built [have] built lend lent [have] lent spend spent [have] spent Ir re gular Verbs Some irregular verbs form the past and past participle by changing both vowels and consonants. Finally, some irregular verbs make no change when forming the past and past participle. Some Verbs that Change Vowels and Consonants buy bought [have] bought see saw [have] seen speak spoke [have] spoken wear wore [have] worn Some Verbs that Make No Change cost cost [have] cost cut cut [have] cut hit hit [have] hit read read [have] read Confusing Verbs sit to be in place set to put (something) in place lie to recline lay to put or place (something) rise to go up raise to make (something) go up Sit the book on the table. Set the bookoron the table. Set the book on the table. The sun will raise in the morning. The sun will rise in the or morning. The sun will rise in the morning. Please lie down. or down. Please lie Please lay down. Direct and Indirect Objects A direct An indirect objectobject receives receives the direct theaction actionofofthe the verb verb. indirectly. It answers It tells the us “toquestion whom” or “who?” “for whom” or “what?” something afteristhe done. verb. Gave who or what? Gave to whom? Mr. Mittleider gave acorns to the squirrels. Verbs: Transitive and Intransitive A transitive verb is a verb that Hello! am theanPunctuation expressesI(transfers) action directed toward a person, place, thing, or idea. Princess, and I am here to Words that receive the action of telltransitive you about transitive and verbs are called objects. These objects complete verbs. the meaning of intransitive the sentence! Transitive verbs are ALWAYS action verbs! Ms. Cortese began her speech. This verb is transitive because it has an object. Verbs: Transitive and Intransitive An intransitive verb is a verb that expresses action or tells us something about the subject WITHOUT the action passing to a receiver. These verbs have no object. Ms. Cortese arrived on time. This verb is intransitive because it has no object. Let ’s Practice! This is a linking verb, since “hungry” describes the honey Next, First, welet’s should identify decide theifverbs they are in the ACTION following or LINKING sentences… verbs. badger. This is an action verb, since it tells us what the subject is doing. The honey badger was hungry. The honey badger snarled ferociously. The sound of Ms. Cortese’s scream echoed through the hallway. This is an action verb, since it tells us what the subject is doing. Let ’s Practice! Finally, let’s look at the action verbs to see if they have an object… The honey badger was hungry. Intransitive The honey badger snarled ferociously. Intransitive The sound of Ms. Cortese’s scream echoed through the hallway. Echoed Snarled at who at who or or what? what? Verbs: Verbals Sometimes that These words “verbs inare typically used as verbs can disguise” are called act as another part of verbals. speech… There are three types of verbals: gerunds, participles, and infinitives. Verbs: Verbals A gerund is a verb form that ends in –ing and is used as a noun. Agent P enjoys running. Verbs: Verbals A participle is a verb form that ends in –ed or –ing that is used as an adjective. The creature kicking at the screen is a platypus. Verbs: Verbals An infinitive is a verb form introduced by the word “to” that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Agent P hopes to stop Dr. Doofenshmirtz. Let ’s Practice! • Ms. Cortese distributed the difficult test. A. Transitive Action Verb B. Intransitive Action Verb C. Linking Verb D. Helping Verb • Ms. Cortese laughed maniacally. A. Transitive Action Verb B. Intransitive Action Verb C. Linking Verb D. Helping Verb •Have you seen pictures of Ms. Kulla’s new motorcycle? A. Transitive Action Verb B. Intransitive Action Verb C. Linking Verb D. Helping Verb Let ’s Practice! • Ms. Cortese is evil. • Transitive Action Verb • Intransitive Action Verb • Linking Verb • Helping Verb • Mr. Sherry rescued the kitten from the pack of squirrels. • Transitive Action Verb • Intransitive Action Verb • Linking Verb • Helping Verb Working with Words Adverbs Parts of Speech Review: Adverbs Listen and watch as Ms. Cortese plays the “Adverb Song” from Grammaropolis. Use the song to list the five questions that adverbs answer. Record this information in your packet. Adverbs An adverb modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. The puppy jumped joyfully. This is an adverb because it describes the verb “jumped.” Adverbs An adverb modifies or Viciously modifies the verb, describes a verb, an adjective, which makes it an adverb. or another adverb. The bird viciously attacked Ms. Cortese.