Pronoun Agreement Download

Transcript
Some of the content
in this presentation
is brought to you by
Grammar Bytes!,
©2012 by Robin L.
Simmons.
The restchomp!
is brought
to you
by Ms.
chomp!
Cortese.
Working with Words
Nouns
Here We Go…
 Let’s review the
definitions of
common nouns,
proper nouns,
concrete nouns,
abstract nouns,
collective nouns, and
compound nouns
using this song…
Nouns
A noun is a
person, place,
thing, or idea.
Proper nouns
name specific
people, places,
things, or
ideas, and they
should be
capitalized.
The squirrel was vicious, and it attacked Ms. Cortese.
Concrete, Abstract, and
Collective Nouns
A concrete
noun is a
person, place,
thing, or idea
that can be
seen, heard, or
touched.
An abstract
noun is a
person, place,
thing, or idea
that cannot be
seen, heard, or
touched.
Squirrels are not known for their kindness.
Concrete, Abstract, and
Collective Nouns
A collective
noun names a
collection, or
group, of
people,
animals, or
things.
We went to see the
litter of puppies.
Aren’t
they
adorable?
Showing Possession
To show
possession, or
ownership, add
an apostrophe
and an “s” to
the end of a
singular noun.
Do you like Ms.
Cortese’s new car?
Showing Possession
To show
possession, or
ownership, add just
an apostrophe to
the end of a plural
noun that already
ends in “s.”
Ms. Cortese graded
the students’ tests.
Showing Possession
Not all plural nouns end in
“s.” To show possession,
or ownership, add an
apostrophe and the letter
“s” to plural nouns that do
not end in “s.”
Ms. Cortese took the
children’s toys.
Singular Possessive
Plural Possessive
teachers pencils
teacher’s pencils
teachers’ pencils
womans purses
woman’s
women’s
students tests
student’s
students’
squirrels weapons
squirrel’s
squirrels’
trees branches
tree’s
trees’
deers antlers
deer’s
deer’s
Working with Words
Pronouns
Pronouns and Antecedents
A pronoun is a
word that takes
the place of a
noun.
The noun
replaced or
referred to by
the pronoun
is called the
antecedent.
The squirrel was vicious, and it attacked Ms. Cortese.
Here We Go…
 Let’s learn more about
pronouns by listening to
this catchy little tune…
 Be prepared to answer
the following questions:
• Why does the pronoun in
this song have the blues?
• What types of pronouns
are listed?
Know Your Pronouns!
Singular
Plural
 he, she, it
 him, her, it
 his, her, hers,
its
 himself,
herself, itself




Singular!
they
them
their, theirs
themselves
Plural!
Pronouns are
AWESOME, but
make sure the
antecedent of your
pronoun is clear to
the reader… You
don’t want to give
your reader a vague
pronoun reference!
Although the car hit the
What does “it” refer to, the car or
telephone pole, it was not
the telephone pole?
damaged.
Remember, second -per son
pr onouns must r efer to the
r eader, and you should not
use them in for mal essays!
You can find many themes in
the short story “Flowers for
Algernon.”
There are many themes in
the short story “Flowers for
Algernon.”
A FORMAL ESSAY…
Wait, like the PROMPT?
Pronoun Agreement:
Gender
The gender of a pronoun must be the
same as the gender of its antecedent.
Ms. Cortese hates squirrels, but she thinks
chipmunks are adorable.
Intensive and
Reflexive Pronouns
A pronoun with –self or –selves attached
is either intensive or reflexive.
Intensive
 Not
necessary to
complete the
meaning of
the sentence
 Used to
emphasize
the noun
before it
Reflexive
 Necessary to
complete the
sentence
If you aren’t sure whether a
pronoun is intensive or
reflexive, remove it from the
sentence. If the sentence
makes sense without it, the
pronoun is intensive.
Boy, this parts of
speech stuff is pretty
INTENSE! Get it?
C o ntr ac t i on s a n d P r o n ou ns
1. Ms. Cortese, _____________
you’re
going to kill us if you
assign any more homework!
It’s such a beautiful day!
2. _________
3. ___________
There is no way I’m going to let Teddy, Noah,
and Nathen work together in a group.
4. The abandoned book lay open on the table, ___
its
pages fluttering in the breeze.
5. Keep _________
your friends close, but your enemies
closer.
their
6. Ms. Cortese and Mr. Sherry crossed ____________
arms and glared at the noisy students.
they’re
7. I love lima beans; _______________
my favorite
vegetable.
Pronoun Agreement:
Per son
Writers must choose either
first, second, or third
person pronouns.
Pronoun Persons
First
Person
 I
 me
 my, mine
 myself
 we
 us
 our, ours
 ourselves
Second
Person
 you
 your, yours
 yourself,
yourselves
Know your
persons!
Third
Person
 he, she, it
 him, her
 his, hers, its
 himself,
herself, itself
 they
 them
 their, theirs
 themselves
Working with Words
Adjectives
Working with Words: Adjectives
 Listen and watch as Ms.
Cortese plays the
“Adjective Song” from
Grammaropolis.
 Use the song to list the
four questions that
adjectives answer and
identify the “baby
adjectives.” Record this
information in your
packet.
Working with Words: Adjectives
Beautiful Trinity
Middle School,
located in scenic
Washington
County, is home
to the evil
English teacher,
Ms. Cortese.
Adjectives
Adjectives modify
(describe) nouns or
pronouns.
That is a beautiful
rainbow.
This is an adjective because
it describes/modifies a noun.
Colorful adjectives
add life to writing!
Adjectives
Adjectives
answer
four
questions…
Demonstrative Adjectives
“That”
points
out Sometimes
the noun
Be
careful,
though…
A demonstrative adjective
“that,”
“this,”
“those,”
andpoints
“these”
“puppy,”
and
“those”
helps
point
out
a
noun.
can
function
as
pronouns.
out the noun “shoes.”
That puppy loves to chew
Give this to the puppy.
on those shoes.
Proper Adjectives
Remember,
identifying
A properwhen
adjective
is a
word’s part of speech, think about
formed
from a proper noun
the word’s function in the
and issentence!
capitalized.
Shakespearean plays are
often studied in English
class.
Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective?
1. That squirrel is watching me.
A. Noun
B. Pronoun
C. Adjective
Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective?
2. He served in the United States Air
Force.
A. Noun
B. Pronoun
C. Adjective
Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective?
3. Did you see that football game on
television last night?
A. Noun
B. Pronoun
C. Adjective
Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective?
4. You will fail English class if you do
not complete your Study Island
assignments!
A. Noun
B. Pronoun
C. Adjective
Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective?
5. Is that a spider or a ladybug?
A. Noun
B. Pronoun
C. Adjective
Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective?
6. We heard the tornado warning on
the radio.
A. Noun
B. Pronoun
C. Adjective
Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective?
7. Please take this coffee to Mrs.
Lounder.
A. Noun
B. Pronoun
C. Adjective
Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective?
8. This is the most ridiculous
assignment we have ever
completed.
A. Noun
B. Pronoun
C. Adjective
Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective?
9. English is a language taught
around the world.
A. Noun
B. Pronoun
C. Adjective
Noun, Pronoun, or Adjective?
10. Everyone enjoyed the bagpiper’s
performance.
A. Noun
B. Pronoun
C. Adjective
Predicate Adjectives
A predicate adjective
follows a linking verb and
describes a subject.
That kitten is adorable.
This is a predicate adjective
because it follows a linking verb
and describes the subject.
Indefinite Adjectives
An indefinite adjective
gives approximate or
indefinite information.
Some teachers are nicer than others.
This is an indefinite
adjective because it does
not provide a specific
number or type.
C o m p a r a t i ve a n d S u p e r l a t i ve Fo r m s
Superlative
We
Comparative
use these
formforms
compares
formof
2
compares
three
adjectives
or
more
two
to
compare
persons,
E=mc
nouns
places,and/or
things,pronouns.
or ideas.
The
Theunicorn
lobsterisiswiser
the
wisest
than
ofthe
all creatures.
llama.
Let’s Practice!
Question #1: What do adjectives modify?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Nouns
Pronouns
Verbs
Nouns and pronouns
Nouns and verbs
Let’s Practice!
Question #2: What type of adjective is
underlined in the following sentence:
Learning is fun.
A. Proper adjective
B. Demonstrative adjective
C. Predicate adjective
Let’s Practice!
Question #3: What type of adjective is
underlined in the following sentence:
I have a Siamese cat named Frank.
A. Proper adjective
B. Demonstrative adjective
C. Predicate adjective
Let’s Practice!
Question #4: What type of adjective is
underlined in the following sentence:
Those nachos are moldy.
A. Proper adjective
B. Demonstrative adjective
C. Predicate adjective
Let’s Practice!
Question #5: Which form of adjective is
used in the following sentence?
That squirrel is meaner than the
other one.
A. Comparative
B. Superlative
Let’s Practice!
Question #6: Which form of adjective is
used in the following sentence?
This squirrel is the meanest of all.
A. Comparative
B. Superlative
Working with Words
Verbs
Here We Go…
 Let’s review verbs with yet
another rocking tune from
Grammaropolis… The
“Verb Song”!
 Pay attention to the two
different types of verbs
described in the song.
Record the names for
these verbs on the first
page of your packet.
Verbs
Verbs are words that
show action or express
a state of being.
Linking
Verb
Action
Verb
Sometimes, “helping
verbs” can help to
complete the main verb,
forming a verb phrase.
Ms. Cortese is evil, and
she lied to her students.
Verbs: Principal Par ts
Verbs consist of
four principal parts.
These principal
parts are used to
form the different
verb tenses.
These fours parts are called
the base form (infinitive),
the present participle, the
past form, and the past
participle.
Re gular Verbs
AMost
regular
verb generally
regular
verbs
forms its past and past
that end in e drop the
participle by adding –d or
e –ed
before
adding
–ing.
to the
base form.
BASE
Hope = Hoping
stomp
PAST
stomped
Slide = Sliding
PAST
Have
PART.
stomped
Hike = Hiking
PRES.
stomping
PART.
The present
participle is formed
by adding –ing.
Ir re gular Verbs
Of course, it can’t be that easy…
Some verbs do not fit this pattern,
and they are called irregular verbs.
BASE
know
hurt
knew
hurt form
PAST These verbs
their past and past
PAST participles in some
Have
Have known
hurt
PART. other way than by
adding –d or –ed.
Ir re gular Verbs
Some irregular
verbs form the
past and past
participle by
changing vowels.
Other irregular
verbs form the
past and past
participle by
changing
consonants.
Some Verbs That Change Vowels
find
found
[have] found
hold
held
[have] held
ring
rang
[have] rung
swim
swam
[have] swum
Some Verbs That Change Consonants
bend
bent
[have] bent
build
built
[have] built
lend
lent
[have] lent
spend
spent
[have] spent
Ir re gular Verbs
Some irregular
verbs form the
past and past
participle by
changing both
vowels and
consonants.
Finally, some
irregular verbs
make no change
when forming
the past and
past participle.
Some Verbs that Change Vowels and Consonants
buy
bought
[have] bought
see
saw
[have] seen
speak
spoke
[have] spoken
wear
wore
[have] worn
Some Verbs that Make No Change
cost
cost
[have] cost
cut
cut
[have] cut
hit
hit
[have] hit
read
read
[have] read
Confusing Verbs
sit
to be in place
set
to put (something) in place
lie
to recline
lay
to put or place (something)
rise
to go up
raise
to make (something) go up
Sit the book on the table.
Set the bookoron the table.
Set the book on the table.
The sun will raise in the morning.
The sun will rise in the
or
morning.
The sun will
rise in the morning.
Please lie down.
or down.
Please lie
Please lay down.
Direct and Indirect Objects
A direct
An indirect
objectobject
receives
receives
the direct
theaction
actionofofthe
the
verb
verb.
indirectly.
It answers
It tells
the us
“toquestion
whom” or
“who?”
“for whom”
or
“what?”
something
afteristhe
done.
verb.
Gave
who or
what?
Gave
to
whom?
Mr. Mittleider gave acorns to
the squirrels.
Verbs:
Transitive and Intransitive
A transitive verb is a verb that
Hello!
am theanPunctuation
expressesI(transfers)
action directed
toward
a person,
place,
thing,
or idea.
Princess,
and
I am
here
to
Words that receive the action of
telltransitive
you about
transitive
and
verbs are
called objects.
These objects
complete verbs.
the meaning of
intransitive
the sentence!
Transitive verbs
are ALWAYS
action verbs!
Ms. Cortese began her speech.
This verb is transitive
because it has an object.
Verbs:
Transitive and Intransitive
An intransitive verb is a verb that
expresses action or tells us something
about the subject WITHOUT the
action passing to a receiver. These
verbs have no object.
Ms. Cortese arrived on time.
This verb is intransitive
because it has no object.
Let ’s Practice! This is a linking verb,
since “hungry”
describes the honey
Next,
First,
welet’s
should
identify
decide
theifverbs
they are
in the
ACTION
following
or LINKING
sentences…
verbs.
badger.
This is an action
verb, since it tells us
what the subject is
doing.
The honey badger was hungry.
The honey badger snarled ferociously.
The sound of Ms. Cortese’s scream echoed through
the hallway.
This is an action
verb, since it tells us
what the subject is
doing.
Let ’s Practice!
Finally, let’s look at the action verbs to see if they have an object…
The honey badger was hungry.
Intransitive
The honey badger snarled ferociously.
Intransitive
The sound of Ms. Cortese’s scream echoed through
the hallway.
Echoed
Snarled
at who
at
who
or or
what?
what?
Verbs:
Verbals
Sometimes
that
These words
“verbs
inare
typically used as verbs can
disguise”
are
called
act as another part of
verbals.
speech…
There are three types of
verbals: gerunds,
participles, and infinitives.
Verbs:
Verbals
A gerund is a verb
form that ends in –ing
and is used as a noun.
Agent P enjoys running.
Verbs:
Verbals
A participle is a verb form
that ends in –ed or –ing
that is used as an adjective.
The creature kicking at
the screen is a platypus.
Verbs:
Verbals
An infinitive is a verb
form introduced by the
word “to” that can be
used as a noun, an
adjective, or an adverb.
Agent P hopes to stop
Dr. Doofenshmirtz.
Let ’s Practice!
• Ms. Cortese distributed the difficult test.
A. Transitive Action Verb
B. Intransitive Action Verb
C. Linking Verb
D. Helping Verb
• Ms. Cortese laughed maniacally.
A. Transitive Action Verb
B. Intransitive Action Verb
C. Linking Verb
D. Helping Verb
•Have you seen pictures of Ms. Kulla’s new motorcycle?
A. Transitive Action Verb
B. Intransitive Action Verb
C. Linking Verb
D. Helping Verb
Let ’s Practice!
• Ms. Cortese is evil.
• Transitive Action Verb
• Intransitive Action Verb
• Linking Verb
• Helping Verb
• Mr. Sherry rescued the kitten from the pack of
squirrels.
• Transitive Action Verb
• Intransitive Action Verb
• Linking Verb
• Helping Verb
Working with Words
Adverbs
Parts of Speech Review:
Adverbs
 Listen and watch as Ms.
Cortese plays the
“Adverb Song” from
Grammaropolis.
 Use the song to list the
five questions that
adverbs answer. Record
this information in your
packet.
Adverbs
An adverb modifies or
describes a verb, an adjective,
or another adverb.
The puppy
jumped
joyfully.
This is an adverb
because it describes the
verb “jumped.”
Adverbs
An adverb modifies or
Viciously modifies the verb,
describes a verb, an adjective,
which makes it an adverb.
or another adverb.
The bird
viciously
attacked
Ms. Cortese.