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Annotated Resource Set (ARS)
Title / Content Area:
Colonial Attitudes toward Southwest Asia and North Africa in the 19th Century through
Photographs
Developed by:
Christopher Rose, Outreach Director, Center for Middle Eastern Studies, University of
Texas at Austin
Grade Level:
9–12
Essential Question:
How do photographs reveal different attitudes and opinions?
Contextual Paragraph:
Beginning with France’s short-lived occupation of Egypt (1798–1801), European
powers began to re-discover the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, which was
under the control of the Ottoman Empire. In the late 19th and early 20th century,
European and American Christian missionaries were active in the Ottoman province of
Syria (modern Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the Palestinian territories). The
Zionist movement had early impacts on the region as well. Rich Arab and Ottoman
families could occasionally afford to hire a photographer for important family events
and portraits, but these early Christian and Jewish pioneers frequently documented
life in the region, often for the purpose of fundraising back home. Photographs of the
region by Ottoman and Arab photographers frequently depict the region as modern;
photos by European and American photographers tend to emphasize tradition,
backwardness, and underdevelopment. This ARS will provide examples of each and
ask students to consider the aspects of selected photos that demonstrate these
characteristics, as well as the reasons why each group of photographers might choose
to depict the region in a particular way.
Teaching with Primary Sources - Annotated Resource Set
1
Resource Set
European Photograph:
American University of
Beirut, 1920–22
European Photograph:
“The boys of Nazareth
are friendly, but in
fanatical Nablus they
throw stones at
Christians,” ca. 1900–
1924
European Photograph:
Baker standing in front
of the "American
Bakery"
European Photograph:
Arab and his Fourteen
Year Old Wife, ca. 1920
European Photograph:
Crowd waiting for the
holy fire to come down
from Heaven, a miracle
celebrated by the Greek
Orthodox Church during
Easter week, Jerusalem,
ca. 1880–1900
European Photograph:
General Allenby's
entrance into
Jerusalem, December
1917
One of a number of
institutions of higher
learning created
throughout the Middle
East by missionaries and
colonial powers
Group of boys looking
through fence next to
stone building
Bakery next to the
Ortaköy Orphanage
Photo for the American
Red Cross
At the Church of the
Holy Sepulchre in
Jerusalem
Entry of the British
general into Jerusalem
via Jaffa Gate
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/collection/ffcarp/it
em/93513670/
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/resource/cph.3c32
671/?co=ffcarp
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/collection/ffcarp/it
em/2001696166/
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/collection/ffcarp/it
em/93512761/
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/collection/ffcarp/it
em/94509942/
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/collection/ffcarp/it
em/93513671/
Teaching with Primary Sources - Annotated Resource Set
2
European Photograph:
Sheep and goats being
taken to market, ca.
1880–1920
European Photograph:
The entrance to the
American Embassy in
Constantinople, 1923
European Photograph:
Jewish farmer with
modern machinery, ca.
1900–1922
European Photograph:
“Camels and donkeys,
as well as bullocks, are
hitched to the low,
one-handled, wooden
plows of Palestine, the
same today as
centuries ago,” ca.
1900–1924
Along the walls of
Jerusalem
Taken on the day of the
memorial service for
President Harding
Farmer seated on a
Massey-Harris mowing
machine drawn by two
horses
Palestinian man in
field with plow drawn
by two cattle; a person
next to him
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/item/93513677/
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/item/2002709173/
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/collection/ffcarp/it
em/2003652908/
http://www.loc.gov/pi
ctures/item/20036529
14/
European Photograph:
Photo of olive pickers,
ca. 1880–1920
European Photograph:
Bead Peddler, ca. 1880–
1900
Damascus
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/collection/ffcarp/it
em/00651202/
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/item/93513675
Notes/Comments:
Teaching with Primary Sources - Annotated Resource Set
3
European Photograph:
Women carrying river
mud from the Nile to
enrich the soil, ca.
1900–1923
Ottoman Photograph:
Girls’ art school, ca.
1880–1893
Ottoman Photograph:
Women’s teacher’s
college, ca. 1880–1893
Ottoman Photograph:
Middle School for girls,
ca. 1880–1893
Anthropological
Photograph: A Nazareth
Mother, ca. 1898–1946
Antropological
Photograph: A Nazareth
Maiden, in old Nazareth
costume, ca. 1920–1933
Arab woman wearing a
striped dress, scarf, and
belt with a coin necklace
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/item/93512776/
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/collection/ahii/ite
m/2001700011/
Teaching with Primary Sources - Annotated Resource Set
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/collection/ahii/ite
m/2001700008/
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/collection/ahii/ite
m/2001697041/
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/item/mpc2004003
588/PP/
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/item/mpc2004002
303/PP/
4
Anthropological
Photograph: Ain Geb.
Jewish settlement on
east side of the Sea of
Galilee, Group of the
settlers, ca. 1934–1939
Anthropological
Photograph: Peasant
family of Ramallah, ca.
1900–1910
Anthropological
Photograph: Beersheba
District: Bedouin
shepherdess spinning,
August 1932
Anthropological
Photograph: Ben
Shemen, September 12,
1935
Future mayor of
Jerusalem, Teddy
Kolleck (standing,
second from right)
Ramallah family of six,
including men, women,
and children, standing
outside doorway of
stone building
Girl holding spindle
Girl in the Jewish
settlement of Ben
Shemen, working in a
poultry house
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/item/mpc2004002
618/PP/
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/item/2007675853/
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/item/mpc2004002
667/PP/
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/item/mpc2005008
378/PP/
Teaching with Primary Sources - Annotated Resource Set
Anthropological
Photograph: Costumes
and characters, etc.,
Group of old Jews, ca.
1890–1917
Anthropological
Photograph: The Nebi
Rubin pilgrim camp—
reminiscent of Israel’s
camp in the desert,
1920–1933
Birds-eye view of tents
and temporary
structures of annual
Muslim pilgrimage to
Nebi Rubin
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/item/2002712698/
http://www.loc.gov/pict
ures/item/91705458/
5
Foundations Annotations
Curriculum Connections
World History
Curriculum Standards
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for World History
(1) History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in world history. The student is expected to: (A) identify major causes and
describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 1750 to 1914: the Scientific Revolution, the Industrial Revolution and
its impact on the development of modern economic systems, European imperialism, and the Enlightenment's impact on political revolutions; and (B) identify
major causes and describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 1914 to the present: the world wars and their
impact on political, economic, and social systems; communist revolutions and their impact on the Cold War; independence movements; and globalization.
(8) History. The student understands the causes and the global impact of the Industrial Revolution and European imperialism from 1750 to 1914. The student is
expected to: (A) identify the major political, economic, and social motivations that influenced European imperialism; (B) explain the major characteristics and
impact of European imperialism.
Content & Thinking Objectives
Students will learn to analyze photographs and prints with a critical eye toward examining the way that subjects are chosen, depicted, etc.
Students will learn how photographs can be used to reflect a certain set of values or political viewpoint.
Inquiry Activities & Strategies
This ARS is intended for use with a study of European imperialism, late 19th century international relations (such as: the decline of the Ottoman Empire), and/or
political movements such as Zionism that were concerned with the status of the eastern Mediterranean region.
Have students group the photos presented by subject matter (people, places, activities), then try group them chronologically within each subgroup.
Students should then analyze their photos (see web resources below for link to an analysis worksheet). Pay close attention to the photo captions and the
information about the organization that commissioned each photo where it is available. How are people portrayed? What kinds of activities are portrayed?
What sorts of buildings?
Teaching with Primary Sources - Annotated Resource Set
6
Answer the following question: Do you notice any trends in photographic styles? Are certain things portrayed differently from others? Do European, American,
and Arab/Ottoman photographers emphasize different things?
Assessment Strategies
Students should select a subset of photos from the collection that they feel represent opposing points of view. In a short presentation to the class (or written
response), explain how each photograph represents its point of view. How would these photographs have been used? Who would have been the intended
audience? What reaction would it have been intended to provoke? Why?
As a debrief exercise, ask students to discuss how photographs can be used for political purposes. What did they learn from this exercise? Can they identify
current examples of this practice?
Other Resources
Web Resources
Photograph and Print Analysis worksheet: http://www.loc.gov/teachers/usingprimarysources/resources/Analyzing_Photographs_and_Prints.pdf
Teaching with Primary Sources - Annotated Resource Set
7