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```Introduction to Data Structures
1
Course Name :
Data Structure (CSI 221)
Course Teacher :
Md. Zakir Hossain
Lecturer, Dept. of Computer Science
Class Schedule :
Tuesday
Thursday
: 11:45 am - 1:00 pm
: 1:00 pm – 2.15 pm
Marks Distribution : Attendance - 10%
Assignment – (5%+5%)
Class Test - (10% +10%)
Midterm
- 30%
Final
- 30%
--------------------------------Total
2
- 100%
Course Outline
1. Concepts and examples
2. Elementary data objects
3. Elementary data structures
4. Arrays
5. Lists
6. Stacks
7. Queues
8. Graphs
9. Trees
10.Sorting and searching
11.Hash techniques
3
Books
1. “Theory
and Problems of Data Structures”
by Seymour Lipschutz, McGraw-Hill,
ISBN 0-07-038001-5.
4
Elementary Data Organization
• Data are simply values or sets of values.
• Collection of data are frequently organized into a
hierarchy of fields, records and files.
• This organization of data may not complex enough to
maintain and efficiently process certain collections of
data.
• For this reason, data are organized into more complex
type of structures called Data Structures.
Data Structures
 Data Structures
The logical or mathematical model of a particular organization of data is called a data
structure.
 Types of Data Structure
1. Linear Data Structure
Example: Arrays, Linked Lists, Stacks, Queues
2. Nonlinear Data Structure
Example: Trees, Graphs
Array
A
B
C
A
D
E F
Tree
B
D
Figure: Linear and nonlinear structures
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C
E
F
Choice of Data Structures
The choice of data structures depends on two considerations:
1.
It must be rich enough in structure to mirror the actual relationships of data in the
real world.
2.
The structure should be simple enough that one can effectively process data when
necessary.
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Figure 2: Array with 8 items
7
10
20
40
30
50 60
70
Figure 3: Tree with 8 nodes
Data Structure Operations
1. Traversing: Accessing each record exactly once so that certain items in the
record may be processed.
2. Searching: Finding the location of the record with a given key value.
3. Inserting: Adding a new record to the structure.
4. Deleting: Removing a record from the structure.
5. Sorting: Arranging the records in some logical order.
6. Merging: Combing the records in two different sorted files into a single
sorted file.
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Algorithms
It is a well-defined set of instructions used to solve a particular problem.
Example:
Write an algorithm for finding the location of the largest element of an array Data.
Largest-Item (Data, N, Loc)
1. set k:=1, Loc:=1 and Max:=Data
2. while k<=N repeat steps 3, 4
3.
If Max < Data[k] then Set Loc:=k and Max:=Data[k]
4.
Set k:=k+1
5. write: Max and Loc
6.
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exit
Complexity of Algorithms
• The complexity of an algorithm M is the function
f(n) which gives the running time and/or storage
space requirement of the algorithm in terms of the
size n of the input data.
• Two types of complexity
1. Time Complexity
2. Space Complexity
10
O-notation
- A function f(n)=O(g(n)) if there are positive constants c and n0 such that
f(n)<=c.g(n) for all n>= n0.
- When f(n)=O(g(n)), it is guaranteed that f(n) grows at a rate no faster than g(n).
So g(n) is an upper bound on f(n).
Example:
(a) f(n) = 3n+2
Here f(n) <= 5n for n>=1
So, f(n) = O(n).
(b) f(n) = 3n2-2
Here f(n) < 3n2 for n>=1
So, f(n) = O(n2).
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Some rules related to asymptotic notation
Rule-1
If fa(n) = O(ga(n)) and fb(n) = O((gb(n)) then
(a) fa(n)+fb(n) = max(O(ga(n)),O(gb(n))
(b) fa(n) * fb(n) = O(ga(n) * gb(n))
Rule-2
If f(n) is a polynomial of degree k, then f(n) = Θ(nk).
Rule-3
Logkn = O(n) for any constant.
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Typical Growth Rates
Function
Name
c
Constant
logn
Logarithmic
log2n
Log-squared
n
Linear
nlogn
n2