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Chapter 1
Nutrition and health
-Nutrition is consider as vital component in personal health care.
-Promotion of health, and prevention of disease for all people, rests
on whole food supply.
-Human nutrition depends on attitudes toward food, and eating
pattern through our life span, under influence of community,
nation, and over all world.
-We need nutrition for maintenance of growth, activity ,and
-The body need energy to carry out vital function as breathing,
and the people need energy to perform physical activity, that could
be met by food .
-Dietetics is the health profession ,having primary responsibility of
application of nutritional care, in various state of health , and
disease, with assistance of nurse and physician.
Definition of nutrition:
-Nourishment that sustain life, it begins from the moment of
conception until death .
-The food people eat, and how it nourishes their bodies.
Kinds of nutrients:
1- Macro nutrients :
-Fats, carbohydrates ( CHO), proteins .
-Supply energy, build tissue.
2- Micro nutrients :
-Vitamins( vits ),minerals.
-Need in small amount.
-Regulate, and control body process.
NB:- water is the over all vital nutrients, enter in all of life process,
-Metabolism: sum of chemical process in the body, to sustain life,
and health .
Metabolites any substance that produced by metabolism or by
metabolic process
-Source of energy:
1-Carbohydrates CHO :
-Primary source of energy.
-Sugar is simple CHO food, while starch is complex CHO food .
-The quick source of energy is glycogen.
-Each one gram of CHO, yield 4kilocalories .
-50to60% of energy taken from CHO diet .
-Comes from plants and animals.
-Saturated fat from animals .
-Unsaturated fat from vegetables, and oil products .
-Each one gram of fat yield 9 kilocalories.
-25to30% of energy taken from fat .
-The body take energy from protein, when there is insufficient
amount of CHO, and fat .
-Each one gram of protein yield 4kilo calories.
-15to29%of total energy taken from protein.
-The primary function of protein ,are building and energy.
NOTE: caloric is aunit of heat used in the nutritional science,
each 1000 calories equal 1 kilocalorie.
*Tissue building:
1-Protein the primary source:
-Responsible for tissue building .
-The necessary unit of building is called amino acid.
2-Minerals :
-Calcium and phosphorus help in building, and maintain bone
-Iron help in build of hemoglobin of red blood cell.
-Vit C build tissue, and prevent bleeding in tissue .
4-Fatty acid .
-Metabolic regulation ,and control:
-Many vits act as co-enzyme or cell enzyme, to govern chemical
reactions in cell metabolism , example B-complex vits .
2-Minerals :
-Act as co-enzyme factors of cell metabolism.
Example: the trace element cobalt act with B12, to prevent
occurrence of pernicious
3-Water and fiber :
-Regulate the passage of food through gastro intestinal tract (GIT),
that help in absorption of different nutrient .
-Remember : water is the fundamental agent for life, provide the
basis of metabolic process .
Levels of nutritional status
1-Ideal nutrition:
-Positive nutrition .
-Well developed body .-Ideal weight .
-Good muscle development, and tone .
-The skin is smooth, and clear, hair is glassy .
-The eye clear, and bright .
-Posture is good .
-Facial expression is alert .
-Appetite, digestion ,and elimination are normal .
mentally and physically alert. -Having essential nutrition, to resist infectious disease.
-Sleep well at nigh.
-2-Border line nutrition
-Poor eating habits, Whose living in stress environment, with low
income .
-Has no reservoir of nutrition .
-At risk of physical illness
3-Malnutrition :
-Nutrients energy are not enough to meet day to day needs .
-Associated with poverty .-Affect infants, children, pregnant women, and elderly.
Increase infant mortality rate, because of poverty, low income and,
-un-educated mother.
- Children and pregnancy ,develop anemia result in ,
Low resistance to infectious disease.
-Impaired learning ability.
-Reduce activity level .
-Apathy .
-Elderly suffering of chronic disease.
-Over nutrition .
-Over weight and obesity .
-Excess energy intake .
-Lead to chronic disease, as hyper tension, and DM .
-Specific dietary factors lead to:
-1-Coronary heart disease( CHD).
-2-High blood pressure( HTN ).
-3-Stroke( CVA).
-4-Some type of cancer .
-6-Obesity .
*Recommendation for good nutrition :
-Eat variety of food , Well balanced diet.
-Maintain ideal weight.
-Avoid too much fat ,saturated fat, and cholesterol.
-Eat food with adequate starch, and fiber .
-Avoid too much sugar.
-Avoid too much sodium.
-Avoid alcohol intake.