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World History 2008-9 Final Review SEMESTER ONE Renaissance (1400-1600) Overall Impact Why did it start in Italy? How did it effect the economy? How did Renaissance art and architecture demonstrate ideals of the era? Humanism How did the Renaissance spread all over Europe? Reformation (1500-1700) What was the purpose of the Protestant Reformation? What were the major arguments Protestants had against the church? Describe how the Protestant Reformation was both religious and political. How did the church respond to the Protestant Reformation? What was the outcome of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Reformation or Counter-Reformation? Key Figures and Ideas Martin Luther Lutheranism John Calvin Calvinism Henry VIII Church of England Council of Trent Inquisition Age of Exploration (1400-1700’s) What civilizations were most active in the Age of Exploration and what made it possible? What was the purpose of the Age of Exploration for participating civilizations? How did explorers change the world? (Think in terms of factors of analysis.) What was the state of the world in the 1700s broken down by region? Absolutism (1500-1700’s) How did Absolutism differ from feudalism? Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment in Europe (1500-1700’s) What was the role of the scientific revolution in Europe? How does it affect us today? - Key Terms and People 1. Newton 2. Galileo 3. Copernicus 4. Scientific Method What was the Enlightenment challenging? How does the Enlightenment affect us today? 1. Social Contract 2. State of Nature 5. Thomas Hobbes 6. Separation of Powers 8. Enlighten despots 3. Natural Rights 4. John Locke 7. Religious Freedom French Revolution (1789-1815) and Nationalism (1800-present) What were the influences that caused the French Revolution? Why is the French Revolution considered to be an important event that changed human history? How does the French Revolution differ from other revolutions? (Russian and US(?)) What were some of the implications of the French Revolution? Napoleon is considered to be one of the most dynamic leaders of the 1800’s. Why is this? What have we learned from Napoleon’s accomplishments and his failures? Define nationalism in your own words and show multiple examples of nationalism at work in multiple countries around the world. (Russia, India, Turkey, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Haiti, Brazil, Mexico and many other examples may work for this question.) Key Terms 1. Three Estates 4. Estates-General 7. Great Fear 9. Storming of the Bastille 11. War with Austria 14. Reign of Terror 17. Balance of Power 20. Romanticism 2. Bourgeoisie 3. Louis XVI 5. National Assembly 6. Tennis Court Oath 8. Declaration of the Rights of Man 10. Radical Moderate Conservative 12. France’s Citizen Army 13. Robespierre 15. Napoleon Bonaparte 16. nationalism 18. Congress of Vienna 19. Realism Industrial Revolution (1700-1900) What are the key causes of the Industrial Revolution? What are some of the major consequences of the Industrial Revolution? Who are some of the great philosophers that came out of this time period? What issues were they trying to analyze? How would they affect the future? Key Terms: 1. Agricultural Revolution 4. Thomas Malthus 7. Robert Owen 10. communist 13. The Union Movement 16. Theory of Evolution 2. enclosure movement 5. David Ricardo 8. abolition 11. Laissez Fair Economics 14. Suffrage 17. Survival of the Fittest 3. capitalism 6. Karl Marx 9. socialism 12. Child Labor 15. Women’s Rights 18. Darwin SEMESTER TWO Age of Imperialism (1850-1914) 1. What historical events eventually led to the Age of Imperialism? 2. Which countries were Imperialists and how did they influence the world? 3. Explain positive and negative aspects of Imperialism. Key Terms: 1. Social Darwinism 4. Protectorate 7. Crimean War 10. paternalism 13. Divide and Conquer 16. Geopolitical 2.Berlin Conference 5.spheres of influence 8. Suez Canal 11. indirect rule 14. Force Policy 17. Economic Imperialism 3. Colony 6. sepoys 9. Russo Japanese War 12. Assimilation 15.British Trading Company 18. Raj World War I (1914-1918) 1. What were the causes of WWI? 2. How did the war that started in Europe eventually affect the whole world? 3. How was WWI different from other wars in the past? 4. What countries were the key players in WWI and why? 5. What was the impact of the war? (Think costs, treaties, and future events) Key Terms: 1. Nationalism 4. Triple Alliance 7. two-front war 10. Fourteen Points 13. Chemical Weapons 16. armistice 2. materialism 5. Triple Entente 8. trench warfare 11. Treaty of Versailles 14. Kaiser Wilhelm 17. self-determination 3. mobilization 6. Franz Ferdinand 9. Gallipoli 12. League of Nations 15. total war 18. diplomacy Broken World (1900-1939) 1. What were the results of WWI after it ended in Europe? Did Europe as a whole ever truly recover from WWI? Why or why not? 2. How did the Great Depression cause major changes both in Europe and the U.S.? 3. What is Fascism? What countries were Fascist? What is Communism? What countries were Communist? What are the differences between these two ideologies? 4. What were some hints that WWII was in the process of happening? What could have been done to prevent these actions? Key Terms 1. Nicholas II 4. V.I. Lenin 7. March Revolution 10. Stalin 13. Nationalist Party 16. Long March 19. Mohandas Gandhi 22. Weimar Republic 25.Benito Mussolini (Il Duce) 28. Nazism 31. Invasion of Ethiopia 2. pogrom 5. Bloody Sunday 8. Red Army 11. Five-Year Plan 14. May Fourth Movement 17. Amritsar Massacre 20. Muslim League 23. Inflation 26. Fascism 29. Mien Kampf 32. appeasement 3. Bolsheviks 6. Duma 9. totalitarian state 12. Guomindang 15. Mao Zedong 18. civil disobedience 21. Mustafa Kemal 24. Great Depression 27. Adolph Hitler 30. Japans Empire 33. Spanish Civil War 34.Isolationism 35. Third Reich 36. nonaggression pact World War II (1939-1945) 1. What were the main causes of WWII? 2. How did nationalism play a part in causing WWII? 3. What was the Holocaust? Can you think of modern day examples of this event? 4. Who were allies during this war? How did they help each other? How did they hurt each other? Which 2 countries were mostly involved in WWII? 5. After Germany fell in WWII who became the new main target? What actions were taken against this new target and why? 6. How did WWII shape modern day events today? Key Terms: 1. Blitzkrieg 4. Afrika Korps 7. ghettos 10. island-hopping 13. kamikaze 16. Manhattan Project 19. Battle of Stalingrad 2. Axis Powers 5. scorched earth policy 8. Rape of Nanking 11. Nuremberg Trails 14. D-Day 17. Pearl Harbor 20. demilitarization 3. Ally Powers 6. Lend and Lease Act 9. Douglas MacArthur 12. Final Solution 15. Harry Truman 18. Kristallnacht Cold War (1945-1989) 1. What factors made the USSR and the United States of America the two most powerful countries in the world during this time period? 2. What made the cold war unique? 3. What made the Cold War such an intense part of world history? 4. What are the key events that took place during the Cold War? What can we learn from them?