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Ohio University Interior Architecture Program HCIA 351, Materials and Construction II Spring 2010 Matthew Ziff, Associate Professor Commercial Interiors Projects In design practice there is a substantial distinction between residential design and commercial design. Commercial design typically involves complicated physical, financial, and legal relationships. The base building (architectural shell) is today often quite separate from the interior infill. Partition systems, office work stations that are demountable, open work space all make interior environments independent from the enclosing building envelope Interior Design Practice The following information is taken from the Whole Building Design Guide web page http://www.wbdg.org/design/dd_interiordsgn.php • Interior design concerns itself with more than just the visual or ambient enhancement of an interior space; it seeks to optimize and harmonize the uses to which the built environment will be put. • Thus, in the words of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, it is "practical, aesthetic, and conducive to intended purposes, such as raising productivity, selling merchandise, or improving life style." Interior design is a practice that responds to changes in the economy, organization, technology, demographics, and business goals of an organization. • As a human activity, interior design is centuries old. • As a coherent profession identified by the label "interior designer," it is relatively recent. • Many experts trace its beginnings to the early 20th century and the rise of interior decoration as a career separate from architecture. In the early decades, this practice focused largely on the residential arena. • By the 1940s, the terms "interior design" and "interior designer" were used primarily by those individuals providing services to a small but growing number of business clients. Elsie de Wolfe, 1865 – 1950 She was without question the first woman to create an occupation as designer where none had existed before. • After World War II, nonresidential design—offices, hotels, retail establishments, and schools—grew in importance as the country rebounded economically. Interior design is generally divided into two categories, residential and contract or commercial. • Today, interior design is becoming increasingly specialized as buildings and materials get more complex technologically and regulations and standards more demanding. Office interior from 1930’s The following images are taken from http://www.officemuseum.com/ Office interior 2010 • The first national professional organization for interior designers, The American Institute of Interior Decorators (later, the American Institute of Interior Designers), was founded in 1931, and a second, the National Society of Interior Designers, in 1957. • But it was not until the 1960s and 70s that independent organizations were established to assess qualifications for designers and design programs, thereby putting in place the cornerstones of the profession; standards for education, experience, and examination. • • These are the Interior Design Educators Council, the Council for Interior Design Accreditation, and the National Council for Interior Design Qualification. In 1975, AID and NSID merged to form the American Society of Interior Designers. The International Interior Design Association was founded in 1994 • Efforts to bring about statutory licensing of interior designers, variously through title or practice acts, also began in the 1960s. • • In 1982, Alabama became the first state to enact legislation for the regulation of interior design. • • Today, 25 states and jurisdictions have adopted some form of regulation for interior design. • Interior design as a profession includes a scope of services performed by a professional design practitioner, qualified by means of education, experience and examination, to protect and enhance the life, health, safety, and welfare of the public. William LeBaron Jenney Home Insurance Building 18831885 Chicago, Illinois The development of high rise construction, and especially the steel frame, really made commercial interior space possible. William LeBaron Jenney's Home Insurance Building of 1883 was an early example of the potential of large scale open commercial space The Rookery, Chicago, IL (1886), John Wellborn Root The Rookery, Chicago, IL (1886), John Wellborn Root Frank Lloyd Wright: Johnson Wax building, Racine, Wisconsin, 1947: “The Great Work Room” Parking garage and front entrance of Johnson Wax Building, Racine, Wisconsin Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, in 1936 for the SC Johnson Wax Administration Building (Racine, WI) Since the early 1940’s there have been three large, and well known companies that support designers and their work Herman Miller: Zeeland, Michigan Knoll: New York City Steelcase: Grand Rapids, Michigan Herman Miller was founded by D. J. De Pree, who bought the Michigan Star Furniture Company in 1923 with his father-in-law, Herman Miller, and a small group of local businessmen. The company was located in Zeeland, Michigan. • Herman Miller, Inc., is one of the leading manufacturers of office furniture and furniture systems, second only to Steelcase in sales. • Ranked since 1986 among the top ten in Fortune magazine's annual list of the 500 most admired companies, Herman Miller is esteemed as an innovator in furniture design, as well as for its unique commitment to employee relations and the environment. • The company maintains operations in 35 countries. • Knoll Group Inc. is a leading U.S. manufacturer of office furniture. • Its products include chairs, wood case goods, files and storage mechanisms, and full office systems. Knoll also produces textiles on contract and markets computer support accessories. • The company sells its products through showrooms, sales offices, and dealerships in about 500 U.S. locations. It also sells through independent dealers in Europe, the Pacific Rim, and Latin America. Steelcase,Inc., Grand Rapids, Michigan • Steelcase was incorporated as the Metal Office Furniture Company on March 16, 1912, in Grand Rapids, Michigan. • Although the new company had a novel idea--fabricating furniture from sheet metal--it received little notice in "The Furniture City," which already had nearly 60 furniture manufacturers. • In 1914 Metal Office hit on an idea that solved the problem of carelessly flicked cigar and cigarette ashes: The Victor, a fireproof steel wastebasket. • Touted for its strength and durability, the wastebasket could also be color coordinated with other furniture. • Victor became an official trademark in 1918 and eventually became an expanded line of products. Charles and Ray (his wife) Eames. Great American designers. Molded plywood chairs designed by Charles and Ray Eames, manufactured by Herman Miller Molded plywood screen designed by Charles and Ray Eames, manufactured by Herman Miller Cast aluminum and leather chairs, designed by Charles and Ray Eames, manufactured by Herman Miller. The Eames lounge chair, manufactured by Herman Miller Model 670 was the first design for the luxury end of the market by Charles and Ray Eames. Designed in 1956 it retailed for $634 in 1957. The Lounge chair is unashamedly masculine, exuding a sense of executive power and comfort through its generous proportions and use of high-quality materials. At first glance, the chair looks much more complex than other pieces by Eames, but it is actually built according to the same principle as their simple plywood chairs. Three moulded plywood elements joined together by metal components and, with a lower frame, form the basic structure. The Merchandise Mart, completed in 1931, catered exclusively to the wholesale trade. The largest building in the world at the time of its completion, the Mart continues to host the NEOCON trade show annually. NeoCon® World’s Trade Fair, North America’s largest conference and exhibition for interior design at The Merchandise Mart Chicago, features the latest trends, products and concepts in office, residential, hospitality, health care, institutional and government environments, all under one roof at Chicago’s famous Merchandise Mart. Open plan office furniture, or systems furniture as it is called today, defines and separates work spaces without the use of constructed partitions. Today it is estimated that more than 30% of U.S. businesses use systems Furniture. The practice of commercial interior design today is a specialty, requiring knowledge, skill, and an ability to bring large and small scale architectural components together into a smoothly functioning environment. Open Office Plan • Open plan offices have existed for a long time. However, prior to the 1950s, these mostly consisted of large regular rows of desks or benches where clerks, typisst, or technicians performed repetitive tasks. • Such designs were rooted in the work of industrial engineers or efficiency experts such as Frederick Winslow Winslow Taylor, and Henry Ford. • In the 1950s, a German team named Quickborner developed office landscape office which used conventional furniture, curved screens, large potted plants, and organic geometry to create work groups on large, open floors. • Office landscape was quickly supplanted by office furniture companies which developed cubicles based on panel-hung or systems furniture. • Many different terms (mostly derisive) have been used over time for offices using the old-style, large arrays of open cubicles including ‘ sea of cubicles’ and ‘cube farm’. Open Plan Office Furniture Base Building and Tenant Improvements The commercial office building shell and core, which include essential services, such as the HVAC system, elevators, and toilet rooms, is commonly referred to as the 'base building'. Tenant improvements are those materials and constructions that form the infill, responding to the tenant's needs, which are not part of the base building. The base building standard, or building standard, is a package of typical tenant improvements provided by, and sometimes required of, the landlord. By standardizing building components like suite entry doors, suite signage, lighting fixtures, and window treatments, the landlord can maintain coherence in design, and consistency in maintenance routines throughout the building. Usually there is a tenant improvement allowance to cover standard items that will be installed at no cost to the tenant. The quantity of tenant improvements is usually described per square foot of rentable space. For example, 1 telephone jack every 125 square feet of leased space, 1 door every 300 square feet of leased space, et cetera. Sometimes the allowance is stated as a certain amount of money to be allocated per square foot of leased space. A lease is an agreement between the property owner and the tenant. There are standard improvements that landlords provide to tenants as part of the rental rate. The document that describes these improvements to the rented space is the work letter which is attached to, and becomes part of the lease. Measuring Commercial Space There are about a dozen different methods of measuring commercial office space in current use. All methods make similar distinctions between gross area, usable area, and rentable area, but they differ in how these areas are calculated. The building gross area: defined as the "construction area" by the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA), is the floor area within the exterior face of the building including the thickness of the exterior wall. It is the total constructed space. This measurement is used in evaluating building efficiency, and in comparing construction costs between projects. The rentable area: is usually defined as the interior floor area excluding vertical penetrations (stairs, duct chases, elevator shafts, et cetera). This measurement is often used to determine the income producing capability of a building. The usable area: is the floor area that is inhabitable by the tenant. This measurement is used in planning and designing the space.