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Warring City States 750 B.C. • Why it matters now? • Many political systems in today’s world evolved in Greece. Rule & Order in Greek City-States • • • • • • What is a Polis? The basic political unit (city & countryside) Who ruled them? Monarchy- King Aristocracy- small group of nobles Oligarchy- ruled by few powerful men A New Kind of Army • • • • At first only bronze weapons Only rich could afford them Steel made weapons cheaper & affordable This allowed all citizens to purchase weapons • Result- The Hoplite Phalanx • It was the most powerful fighting force in the ancient world Sparta • • • • • • • Spartans valued –duty , strength, & duty “Return Victorious or on your shield” It develops a military state Conquered Messenians(helots) are their slaves Two kings ruled with a council of elders Spartan education – Rough life Women- Public life- Ran wrestled & played sports Athens • Athens avoids civil war by developing a democracy • Solon Reforms the legal system, the assembly , trade, but neglected the peasants • Cleisthenes reforms the assembly • He creates the Council of 500(citizens) to balance power against the nobles • Women –Girly life out of site. The Persian Wars 490 B.C.- 479 B.C. • Battle of Marathon-10,000 Greeks Vs 25,000 Persian, Phalanx destroys Persians • 6400 dead Persians to 192 Greeks • Pheidippides- ran from Marathon to Athens to report the win & not give up the city • Battle of Thermopylae- Xerxes of Persia brings an enormous invasion force • 300 Spartans make a stand to allow for a retreat • Held of the entire army for 3 days before dying Cont. • Battle of Salamis (Naval Battle) • Surprise attack by Greeks destroys 1/3 of Xerxes fleet • He watches in horror from a chair on a cliff • Battle of Plataea- Final defeat of Xerxes • This begins the Greece Golden Age Now • Write an essay- Would you rather be an Athenian or Spartan? • Why?