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Patton and Thibodeau: Anthony’s Textbook of Anatomy & Physiology, 19th Edition Chapter 1: Organization of the Body Answers to Quick Check Questions 1. Science develops new principles by using detailed observations and vigorous tests, or experiments to analyze each idea or hypothesis until a reasonable conclusion can be made. As more testing is done, eliminating outside influences or biases and ensuring consistent results, scientists begin to have more confidence in the principle and call it a theory or law. 2. Anatomy: the study of the structure of an organism and the relationships of its parts. Physiology: the science that treats the functions of the living organism and its parts. 3. The type of organism involved, the organizational level studied, and a specific, or systemic, function being studied. 4. Systemic anatomy. 5. An eponym is a term that is based on a person’s name. 6. Autopoiesis: organisms are self-organizing or self-maintaining and nonliving structures are not. 7. Metabolism is the sum of all physical and chemical reactions in the body. Each characteristic of life is related to these reactions. 8. Chemical, organelle, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organism. 9. Answers may include any of the following: mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, nucleus, ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuole, lysosome. 10. Epithelial, connective, muscular, and nerve. 11. Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. 12. In the anatomical position the body is in an erect, or standing, posture with the arms at the sides and palms turned forward. The head and feet are also pointing forward. This position is a reference position that gives meaning to the directional terms used to describe the body parts and regions. 13. Axial and appendicular. 14. Ventral cavity: thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. Dorsal cavity: cranial and spinal cavities. 15. Abdominal regions: right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac, right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right iliac, hypogastric, left iliac. Abdominopelvic quadrants: right upper, left upper, right lower, and left lower. 16. Superior: toward the head or upper or above; Inferior: toward the feet or lower or below. Anterior: front or “in front of”; Posterior: back or “in back of.” Medial: toward the midline of the body; Lateral: toward the side of the body. Dorsal: toward the back; Ventral: toward the belly. 17. Anatomical left is opposite of your left as you face the structure. Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Answers to Quick Check Questions 1-2 18. Sagittal, frontal, and transverse. 19. The rosette is used as a compass similar to those used on geographical maps. Rather than being labeled, N, S, E, and W, the anatomical rosette is labeled with abbreviated anatomical directions. 20. Complementarity of structure and function refers to the fact that anatomical structures seem “designed” (size, shape, form, or placement) to efficiently perform specific functions. 21. DNA “directs” the differentiation of specialized cells during development so that they can effectively contribute to a specific function. For example, in the lungs, the cilia, which cover the exposed surface of cells that form the tissues lining the respiratory passageways, help trap and eliminate inhaled contaminants. 22. Homeostasis is the relatively constant state maintained by the body. 23. Sensor mechanism, Integrating, or control center, Effector mechanism, and Feedback. 24. Negative feedback control systems are inhibitory. They produce an action that is opposite to the change that activated the system. Negative feedback control systems stabilize physiological variables. Positive feedback control systems are stimulatory. Positive feedback tends to amplify or reinforce the change that is occurring. Typically, such responses result in instability and disrupt homeostasis. 25. Intracellular control mechanisms operate at the cell level. These mechanisms regulate functions within the cells. Intrinsic control mechanisms operate at the tissue and organ levels. They often make use of chemical signals. Extrinsic control mechanisms operate at the system and organism levels. These usually involve nervous and endocrine regulation. Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.