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BIOLOGY 165 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM LAB MANUAL NOTE: You may be asked to identify any structure, cell, tissue, or organ labeled in the figures/pictures within this lab manual. In addition, you may be asked to name one function of each labeled item and one location within the human body where it can be found. You are only responsible for the specific information contained within this lab manual. Although the pictures in this packet show a particular model, you should look at all similar models we have in the lab; any model in lab can be used during the practical. ALSO: The COLOR of the blood vessels in the models denotes OXYGEN CONTENT of the blood in those vessels, not whether the vessel is an artery or vein. Vessels painted red transport blood that is high in oxygen and low in carbon dioxide. Vessels painted blue transport blood that is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide. Arteries carry blood away from the heart, while veins carry blood towards the heart. INTRODUCTION The Respiratory System consists of the Upper Respiratory System (nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, and associated structures) and the Lower Respiratory System (larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs). Organs of the Respiratory System 1. Nasal cavity (the space above the hard palate) – with the following accessory organs: a. Nasal concha (superior, middle, and inferior) – increase the surface area of the nose to help clean, moisten, and warm incoming air. b. Nasal meatus (superior, middle, and inferior) – groove-like passages for air between the nasal concha. 2. Pharynx – a passageway for air and food, and a resonating chamber for speech. a. Nasopharynx (space behind the nasal cavity) – with the following accessory organs: i. The openings to the auditory (Eustachian) tubes – opening that leads to the middle ear cavity so air can be equalized on both sides of the tympanic membrane. A sphincter valve on the pharynx end keeps this tube closed until you swallow or yawn. ii. The pharyngeal tonsils – intercepts pathogens (microbes) and destroys them. b. Oropharynx – the space behind the oral cavity. c. Laryngopharynx – the space adjacent to the larynx. 3. Larynx – the voice box and passageway for air going to and from the lungs. a. Epiglottis – closes off the glottis during swallowing so that food doesn’t go down into the trachea; instead, the food is directed into the esophagus. b. Vocal folds – produce sound as air passes over them, which causes them to vibrate. 4. Trachea – a tubular air passage for air going to and from the lungs. Helps to clean, moisten, and warm the incoming air. 5. Bronchi – divisions of the trachea taking air to and from the right and left lungs. 6. Lungs – paired organs where gas exchange occurs between the inhaled atmospheric air and the blood. Be able to identify the structures shown in the pictures below. The Nasal Cavity and Pharynx The Larynx The Lungs and Diaphragm HISTOLOGY OF THE LUNGS AND ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES Seen below: Light photomicrograph of the lung (40X). Seen below: Light photomicrograph of the lung (100X). Light photomicrograph of the lung (400X).