Download biology 165 respiratory system lab manual

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NOTE: You may be asked to identify any structure, cell, tissue, or organ labeled in the figures/pictures within
this lab manual. In addition, you may be asked to name one function of each labeled item and one location
within the human body where it can be found. You are only responsible for the specific information contained
within this lab manual. Although the pictures in this packet show a particular model, you should look at all
similar models we have in the lab; any model in lab can be used during the practical.
ALSO: The COLOR of the blood vessels in the models denotes OXYGEN CONTENT of the blood in
those vessels, not whether the vessel is an artery or vein. Vessels painted red transport blood that is high in
oxygen and low in carbon dioxide. Vessels painted blue transport blood that is low in oxygen and high in
carbon dioxide. Arteries carry blood away from the heart, while veins carry blood towards the heart.
The Respiratory System consists of the Upper Respiratory System (nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, and associated
structures) and the Lower Respiratory System (larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs).
Organs of the Respiratory System
1. Nasal cavity (the space above the hard palate) – with the following accessory organs:
a. Nasal concha (superior, middle, and inferior) – increase the surface area of the nose to help
clean, moisten, and warm incoming air.
b. Nasal meatus (superior, middle, and inferior) – groove-like passages for air between the nasal
2. Pharynx – a passageway for air and food, and a resonating chamber for speech.
a. Nasopharynx (space behind the nasal cavity) – with the following accessory organs:
i. The openings to the auditory (Eustachian) tubes – opening that leads to the middle ear
cavity so air can be equalized on both sides of the tympanic membrane. A sphincter
valve on the pharynx end keeps this tube closed until you swallow or yawn.
ii. The pharyngeal tonsils – intercepts pathogens (microbes) and destroys them.
b. Oropharynx – the space behind the oral cavity.
c. Laryngopharynx – the space adjacent to the larynx.
3. Larynx – the voice box and passageway for air going to and from the lungs.
a. Epiglottis – closes off the glottis during swallowing so that food doesn’t go down into the
trachea; instead, the food is directed into the esophagus.
b. Vocal folds – produce sound as air passes over them, which causes them to vibrate.
4. Trachea – a tubular air passage for air going to and from the lungs. Helps to clean, moisten, and warm
the incoming air.
5. Bronchi – divisions of the trachea taking air to and from the right and left lungs.
6. Lungs – paired organs where gas exchange occurs between the inhaled atmospheric air and the blood.
Be able to identify the structures shown in the pictures below.
The Nasal Cavity and Pharynx
The Larynx
The Lungs and Diaphragm
Seen below: Light photomicrograph of the lung (40X).
Seen below: Light photomicrograph of the lung (100X).
Light photomicrograph of the lung (400X).