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Darcey Sweeney Professor Kase Final Exam Essay # 1 December 4, 2008 1. Discuss fully the advantages and disadvantages of the North and the South at the beginning of the Civil War. July 21, 1861 the Civil War began at dawn with McDowell commanding 30,000 troops against General Pierre Beauregard’s 22,000. The Civil War, considered the first total war in history, it was fought through the mobilization of society’s human and economic resources. Lincoln was key to the war, moving slowly at first to keep the border - states within the Union, however Lincoln later granted the destruction of slavery as a target in the war. Lincoln freed four million slaves, making the Civil War one of the most epic wars in both the South and North’s history. Both North and South underestimated the extent of the war between both unions. The Civil War was the first battle that involved more than 100,000 troops. Railroads were the main suppliers for weaponry and deliverance during the war, seeing it was the only way for mass production to be delivered to each camp. Seeing that the North contained over 20,000 miles of railroad, more than double what the South had established, the North was well equipped with weaponry. With an advantage in weaponry and transportation, the North’s manufacturing represented over 90 % of the country’s industry. The North had an abundance of factories, including: textile factories, iron and steel mills, meat packing facilities, flour – milling, oil refining, and armament plants. The South depended greatly on imported manufactured goods; they had very few factories. Since the war was mainly fought on Southern territory, the North’s resources had to be organized and mobilized. The new factories, mass production, transportation, and economic wealth helped to make the process flow easier. Adding to the North’s advantage economically, during the war the North operated factories at full speed. The North invented new machinery to mass-produce; this picked up the labor shortages. During the war this gave the U.S. a great opportunity to enter an age of enterprise. With most economic power, the North possessed more than 3/4 of the nation’s resources. The South being short of capital and not economically as strong as the North, it had great difficulty financing the war. With financing the North required a system to finance its campaign. Taxing the populace was one mean, and taxes paid for 21 % of the Union war expenses; the Confederate with only 1 %. August of 1861 Congress levied the first federal income tax, of 3 % on all incomes in $800 a year. Along with the increased tariff duties, proved insufficient, Congress enacted a comprehensive tax law in 1862 that for the first time brought the tax collector into every northern household. The government also borrowed a large amount of money through the sale of $2.2 billion in bonds. This financed the rest of the war’s cost by issuing paper money. Again, the South was so short of capital, there financial status deeply affected their finances during the war. All together, the Union printed $431 million. Adding to the North’s financing plans, Congress also instituted a national banking system, allowing nationally chartered banks to issue notes backed by the U.S. bonds. This was the first time the U.S. created uniform national currency. The North kept control over more than 2/3 of the states. The North included ten free states and four-slaveholding border - states: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri. The North’s goal was to invade, conquer and put and end to the South’s will to resist. Therefore, the North deployed thousands of soldiers to defend long supply lines in enemy territory; this considerably reduced the northern advantage in manpower. Moreover, Northern population totaled twenty two million, as the South stood with nine million; three and half million were slaves. The South’s main advantage was fighting on their own terrain since the Union invaded the Southern states. They were essentially fighting a defensive war. Therefore, their ability to hunt and experience with outdoor life helped when the Northerners came with factory workers and businessmen to fight. With advantages due to terrain, they carried with them loyal outstanding leaders: such as Thomas J. Stonewall and Robert E. Lee. The South consisted of a group of eleven states. The seven that had seceded following Lincoln’s election were joined by four border- states: Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia. However, the South did consist of a few areas of pro – Union sentiment. The South entailed in many European friends who favored their aristocracy. Moreover, Europeans who knew the strength and resources of both sides believed that the Confederacy could never be conquered. The South, however, did not need to invade the North, they only had to protect their land, people, and army. In conclusion, the war had a huge impact on both sides. Both North and South had multiple advantages and disadvantages. The conflict cost estimated $20 billion. The Civil War rearranged and reordered the national economy and economic relations worldwide. Demand for machines stimulated industrialization, mainly in heavy industries. Manufacturers were forced to supply the army on an unprecedented scale all over. The war affected everyone globally as well as nationally. Mainly because Europe depended on imports of Southern Cotton. Not only did the South expect Europe rally for their support but help financially also. The lack of cotton trade greatly affected Europe; Europe was forced to find new sources. Moreover, India, Egypt and Brazil all improved their railroad facilities, thanks to the north, this encouraged to open new cotton fields for new importing and exporting. Politically, the war changed the balance of power. The South and Democratic Party lost much influence, while the Republicans emerged to the higher position. All in all, the war’s corrosive effect on human morals corrupted American life and politics, destroyed idealism, and severely crippled humanitarian reform. 2. What are the black codes? How did the policies of segregation become entrenched in the South? President Johnson recommendations were not agreeing with most southern delegates who met to construct new governments. Johnson moved to quickly to return the southern states to their place in the Union. He insisted a loyalty oath white southerners would have to regain their civil and political rights and have their property restored, except for slaves. Johnson then announced that once a state had drafted a new constitution and elected state officers and members of Congress, he would revoke martial law and recognize the new state government. Suffrage was very limited to all the white citizens who had taken the oath. Soon Johnson informally stipulate that the southern states were to renounce their ordinances of secession, repudiate the Confederate debt, and ratify the proposed 13th Amendment, abolishing slavery. The white elitist regimes in the south tried to prevent blacks from gaining any power at all. The Civil Rights act was passed in 1866, but there were other laws passed that prevented African Americans from gaining too much power. These other laws were passed in order to exert more direct. The new governments also did not allow African Americans any political rights or provide any way for black education. Due to this “new government” each state passed a series of laws also known as codes. The Black Codes gave African Americans some rights that had not been granted to slaves. They legalized marriages from slavery and allowed black southerners to hold and sell property and to sue and be sued in the state courts. However, their main intention was to keep African Americans as propertyless agricultural laborers with inferior legal rights. Moreover, the Black Codes did not do as much as they were hoped to. The new freed slaves could not serve on juries, testify against whites, or work as they pleased. Mississippi prohibited them from buying or renting farmland and most states ominously provided that black people who were vagrants could be arrested and hired out to landowners. Even though the Black Codes differed from state to state, they were similar in many ways: All black s had to agree to labor contracts with few job opportunities, blacks could not own land, however they were trapped in sharecropping or the wage-labor system, sentencing of hard labor or chain gangs took place if they were unable to pay a fine, states were allowed to force apprenticeships amongst orphaned black children (not considered slavery, and whites were given the privilege to mentally and physically abuse black people without fear of punishment. The Black Codes almost came as a threat to the Northerners it violated their sense of freedom. The thought of free black population feared the white southerners, mainly because the blacks would outnumber the whites. The fact that blacks could outnumber the whites gave them the idea that the black population would retaliate from the hundreds of years of slavery they were put through. Unfairly, the Black Codes were passed to ensure the white people that they would have a stable and reliable work force in the south; seeing that after the civil work, economically the south was well in debt.