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Transcript
Chapter 6: Nutrition for Fitness and Athletics
Worksheet Answers
Exercise 1.
True-False. Indicate whether each of the following statements is true or false by
circling + if true and O if false. It the statement is false, correct it in the space provided.
+ O 1. Optimal nutrition is necessary for both training and competition, however,
between these two situations nutrition for competition is far more important
than nutrition for training.
Nutrition for training is more important because more time is spent in
training than in competition.
+ O 2. The caloric intake goal for an active individual is to ingest sufficient calories
to match the caloric expenditures of normal daily activities plus training/
competition expenditures while maintaining optimal body weight and
composition.
+ O 3. Muscle fiber damage associated with exhaustive eccentric exercise stimulates
glycogen resynthesis in the damaged muscle when carbohydrate ingestion is
elevated.
Damage delays resynthesis for as long as 7–10 days despite elevated CHO
ingestion.
+ O 4. When the interval between exercise sessions is < 8 hr, carbohydrate ingestion
(50-100 g at a rate of 1.2 g.kgBW-1.hr-1) should begin as soon as practical (1530 min) after a hard workout and continue at that rate every 15-60 min until a
Plowman & Smith: Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness, and Performance, 4th ed. ©Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, 2014
Page 1
large meal including ~600-1000 kcal can be eaten to replenish glycogen
reserves and be maintained for at least 4-6 hr.
+ O 5. Glycogen resynthesis occurs at about 12-15% per hour under optimal conditions
such that complete recovery takes about 8 hr.
Glycogen resynthesis occurs at a rate of 5–6% per hour, requiring 17–20 h
for complete recovery.
+ O 6. Under optimal dietary conditions the relationship between blood lactate
concentration and glycogen resynthesis is direct and positive.
+ O 7. Excessive ingestion of carbohydrates (70-80%), especially high glycemic
carbohydrates, can result in high blood levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in
sedentary individuals, and is hence to be discouraged.
+ O 8. There is no substantive evidence that excessive ingestion of protein (>3g.kgBW1. -1
d ) by active individuals may have negative effects including increased blood
lipid levels, decreased bone calcium, and dehydration, but, in individuals with
preexisting liver or kidney abnormalities such an intake may lead to a further
deterioration in function.
+ O 9. The lower the percentage of fat ingested in a diet, the higher are physiological
and performance variables.
Too little fat (<20–30%) can cause decreases in physiological variables
and performance.
Plowman & Smith: Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness, and Performance, 4th ed. ©Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, 2014
Page 2
+ O 10. Vitamin supplementation in an adequately nourished and physically active
individual improves exercise performance, speeds up recovery and decreases
injuries.
There is no evidence for any of these claims.
+ O 11. Carbohydrate loading should be recommended for all competitors regardless
of the intensity and duration of the event.
Carbohydrate loading is recommended only for continuous endurance
.
events longer than 90 min at 65–85% V O2 max.
+ O 12. When the recovery time between exercise sessions is >8 hr the immediate
consumption of carbohydrate is not essential. As long as 7-10 g.kgBW-1 of CHO
is consumed at a rate of 50 g.hr-1 for 24 hr muscle and liver glycogen will be
replaced.
+ O 13. Beverages containing 2.5 –10% carbohydrate are absorbed by the body as
rapidly as water.
+ O 14. The USDA ChooseMyPlate recommended daily caloric energy intake is based
on sex, age and activity level. The average 20 yr old sedentary male and
Female are allotted 2600 and 2000 kcal, respectively, with an additional
400 kcal if the individual is active.
+ O 15. In general endurance trained individuals have a lower glycemic (and hence
lower insulin) response to food than untrained individuals.
+ O 16. Eating a larger portion of any food with a glycemic index produces a lower
glycemic load than a smaller portion.
Eating a larger portion of any food with a glycemic index produces a
Plowman & Smith: Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness, and Performance, 4th ed. ©Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, 2014
Page 3
higher glycemic load than a smaller portion.
+ O 17. The addition of amino acids and/or protein to an after exercise carbohydrate
feeding will increase muscle glycogen synthesis not matter how much
carbohydrate is ingested (g.kg-1.hr-1)
If sufficient CHO is present (>1.2 g kg−1 h−1) there is no additional
benefit; conversely if CHO ingestion is <1.2 g kg−1 h−1 the addition of amino
acids/protein can be beneficial.
+ O 18. The ingestion of fat in amounts >5% of total calories in meals after exercise
hinders glycogen resynthesis.
As long as meals ingested within hours after exercise contain large
amounts of CHO the addition of fat does not hinder muscle glycogen
replenishment.
+ O 19. Adequate fluid intake is important when ingesting either sports bars or
sports gels. This means at least 12-16 oz of water per packet or bar.
+ O 20. The performance benefits of the modified or short carbohydrate loading
techniques can be enhanced by combining either of them with fat loading.
Although muscle glycogen utilization is reduced during exercise when fat is
included there is no clear evidence of performance enhancement.
+ O 21. Carbohydrate feedings during exercise have been found to be beneficial when
taken in small amounts at 15-30 min intervals during endurance events
lasting longer than one hr but not during intermittent activities such as soccer
or field hockey.
Carbohydrate feedings taken in small amounts at 15- to 30-min intervals are
also beneficial during intermittent activities such as soccer or field hockey.
Plowman & Smith: Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness, and Performance, 4th ed. ©Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, 2014
Page 4
+ O 22. Male athletes or fitness participants are not susceptible to eating disorders.
Male athletes are vulnerable to eating disorders in the same sports as
females and the disorder is often expressed as muscle dysmorphia.
+ O 23. Foods that are a “good” source of a nutrient in a single serving generally
contain 10-19% of the recommended daily value for that nutrient.
+ O 24. Categories of sports drinks include Fluid/Electrolyte Replacement drinks,
Fluid/Fuel Replacement drinks, Energy drinks/ and Recovery/Replenishment
drinks.
Energy drinks are not sports drinks.
+ O 25, Cigarette smoking has been shown to impair the immediate (non-insulin
dependent) phase of muscle glycogen resynthesis.
Cigarette smoking impairs the insulin-dependent second phase, probably
due to a reduction in glucose uptake via GLUT4 transporters.
+ O 26. If supplemental protein is ingested, that protein should include both whey and
casein components. Casein elicits a sharp, rapid increase of plasma amino
acids while whey elicits a moderate, prolonged increase that is sustained for
hours.
Whey protein elicits a sharp, rapid increase of plasma AA, whereas casein
protein elicits a moderate, prolonged increase.
+ O 27. Low Glycemic Index (LGI) pre-event meals spare glucose during short
endurance events. However, the ingestion of high glycemic index (HGI) carbohydrateelectrolyte drinks during an endurance even cancels this effect and results in similar
substrate utilization no matter what CHO type (HGI or LGI) was ingested pre-event.
Plowman & Smith: Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness, and Performance, 4th ed. ©Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, 2014
Page 5
Exercise 2.
Calculations. Calculate the food intake for one day in grams and kilocalories for two 70
kg (154 lb) individuals, one who is sedentary (Sami Sitt) and the other who is active
(Ellie Enduro). Both are 21years old and female. Keep within both the % and g.kg-1.d-1
recommendations.
Sedentary Sami
Active Ellie
56 g/224 kcal
84–140 g/336–560 kcal
44–65 g/400–585 kcal
53–70 g/480–630 kcal
<22 g/200 kcal
<24 g/240 kcal
Cholesterol
<300 mg
<300 mg
Trans Fats
Close to 0
Close to 0
315–325 g/1260–1300 kcal
348–700 g/1392–2800 kcal
1884–2109 kcal
2298–3990 kcal*
Protein
Fat
Saturated
Carbohydrate
Total Caloric Intake
*Note: consuming all the high end values will put this individual well over the
recommended 2400 kcal. However, consuming all the low end values puts her slightly
under the recommended 2400 kcal. Actual intake must take into account the total caloric
cost of the activity (esp. relative to CHO intake per body weight) and not just the generic
estimate.
Exercise 3.
Matching. A) Label each of the following actions/advice that are intended to
reduce the risk of an individual developing an eating disorder or dealing
with an individual suspected of having an eating disorder in Column I as
being either positive appropriate, or a negative inappropriate from Column
II.
Plowman & Smith: Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness, and Performance, 4th ed. ©Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, 2014
Page 6
Column I: Actions/Advice
_B__Seek medical assistance to delay puberty in young females by hormonal
manipulation.
_A__Encourage youngsters to try a variety of sports
_B__Require athletes to make the weight you as the coach have assigned to them before
they can compete each week.
_A__Avoid teasing or derogatory remarks about body size, shape, or weight.
_A__Provide a realistic, progressive periodized training program appropriate to each
individual’s age and fitness status.
_B__Set up an educational program about eating disorders, because accurate information
is the key to preventing the problem.
_B__Assign partners to weigh each other weekly and post the results in the locker room.
_A__Identify healthy target weight ranges appropriate for each individual’s maturation
stage, but only if actually called for.
_B__In situations where males and females train together, such as swimming, provide
one set of body weight standards.
_B__Reward those who lose the most weight with the greatest amount of positive
feedback and attention.
_A__Set up a nutritional guidance program under the direction of a trained dietitian.
_A__Monitor the relationship between weight loss and performance.
_B__Delay treatment of any suspected eating disorder to the active rest or off-season
phase of the training cycle, when there will be time to deal with it.
_A__Seek professional counseling.
_A__Provide an atmosphere where health and well-being are valued above performance
and “looking good.”
Column II
A. Positive, appropriate
Plowman & Smith: Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness, and Performance, 4th ed. ©Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, 2014
Page 7
B. Negative, inappropriate
B) Match the vitamin or mineral in Column II with the appropriate descriptive statement
or consequence of excess, deficit, or imbalance in Column I. Answers from Column II
can be used more than once,and a statement may have more than one correct answer.
Column I: Descriptive Statement / Consequence
__J__ Excess intake (more than the RDA) can lead to impaired immune function;
decreased iron and copper absorption
__B__ Part of the coenzyme FAD
__C__ Important in the formation of the catecholamine stress hormones
epinephrine/norepinephrine
D, F_ Antioxidant defense against free radicals
__H__ Megadoses inhibit fatty acid mobilization and utilization during exercise, which,
in turn, leads to increased glycogen use
__E__ Speculated to increase muscle mass and decrease body fat, but research evidence
is lacking
__H__ Part of the coenzyme NAD
__C__ Involved in both amino acid metabolism and the breakdown of glycogen to
glucose.
__I__ May improve performance by delaying the onset of anaerobic metabolism
__G__ Critical component of red blood cell hemoglobin
__D__ High doses linked with breakdown of red blood cells and loss of hemoglobin
__I__ Supplementation over time may lead to decreased blood calcium levels
__A__ Important in carbohydrate metabolism
__G__ Supplementation exceeding the recommended daily allowance in nondepleted
and/or nondeficient individuals can inhibit zinc and cooper absorption
__F__ Influences the flow of electrons within the mitochondrial electron transport.
Plowman & Smith: Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness, and Performance, 4th ed. ©Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, 2014
Page 8
Column II: Vitamin or Mineral
A. Vitamin B1 (thiamin)
B. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
C. Vitamin B6
D. Vitamin C
E. Chromium
F. Vitamin E
G. Iron
H. Niacin
I. Phosphate
J. Zinc
C) Label each of the following statements as being a goal for an optimal training diet, a
goal for an optimal competition, or a myth.
__A__ Achieve and maintain optimal body composition and playing weight
__B__ Achieve desired weight classification while maintaining fuel and water supplies
__B__ Avoid gastrointestinal discomfort
__C__ Double the DRI/RDA/AI for vitamin ingestion by pill supplementation
__B__ Ensure adequate fuel supplies during the event, no matter what the duration
__B__ Facilitate temperature regulation by preventing dehydration
__A__ Incorporate nutritional practices that promote good health
__C__ Increase chromium picolinate intake to build muscle mass and decrease percent
body fat
__A__ Promote recovery and adaptation with well-timed food intake
__A__ Provide caloric and nutrient requirements
__C__ Supplement microminerals (zinc, selenium, copper and iron) and macrominerals
(magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium) at levels twice the DRI/RDA/AI
Plowman & Smith: Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness, and Performance, 4th ed. ©Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, 2014
Page 9
__A__ Try variations of fuel and fluid intake to determine bodily responses
__C__ Reduce fat intake to less than 10% of total caloric intake.
__C__ Balance caloric intake with resting metabolic rate
A. Training diet
B. Competition diet
C. Myth
Plowman & Smith: Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness, and Performance, 4th ed. ©Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, 2014
Page 10