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Species Interactions
Mr. Beaty
2009-10
Bellringer
Have notes ready for species
interactions discussion.
 I will call each up to see their grades
after the notes.
 Defend the following statement:
 Species interactions are the driving
force behind natural selection.

Ecology terms:
Biotic factors
 Abiotic
 Niche (Fundamental and Realized)
 Competition

EQ: How do species interactions drive
changes in organisms?





Predator/Prey
Parasitism
Commensalism
Mutualism
Commensalism
Predator-Prey
Parasatism

Parasitism

Mutualism
Commensalism
Competitive Exclusion

two species
competing for
the same
resources
cannot stably
coexist

Connell
(1961)
Competitive Exclusion Principle

Tansley (1917) showed
(1) that the presence of
absence of a species could
be determined by
competition with other
species; (2) that
conditions of the
environment (in this case,
soil type) affected the
outcome of competition;
(3) that competition might
be felt very broadly at first
(i.e., from other
vegetation throughout the
community); and (4) that
the present ecological
segregation of species
might have resulted from
competition in the past.
Competitive Exclusion Principle

2.


Gause: used
cultures of
protozoans to
develop the
competitive
exclusion princple
(1934).
two species cannot
coexist on the
same limiting
resource.
Limiting Resource
Resource Partitioning



Charles Darwin noticed that competition
is most intense between similar species
that require the same resources.
Robert MacArthur studied several species
of warblers that foraged in the same tree.
A closer look showed that each species
hunts for insects in a different part of the
tree.
process by which natural selection drives
competing species into different patterns
of resource use or different niches.
of resource partitioning.
Coevolution
Here you can see two Heliconius eggs that
have been layed on a passionflower leaf.
Here you can see the leaf on one
passionflower species which has evolved to "fake eggs"
(nectaries) to make the moth think that the leaf is already
occupied.
Adaptations
Mimicry
 Toxins
 Aposomatic coloration
 Plants: Physical defenese, chemical
defenses
 Secondary compounds – nicotine,
strychnine, poison ivey

Batesian Mimicry
Coevolution at its best!

This tropical ant of the
species Cephalotes atratus
is infected with a
parasitic roundworm
that makes its bulbous
rear end, called a gaster,
look like a juicy red berry.
Researchers believe the
parasites transform the
gasters to trick foraging
birds into eating the
ants. Birds poop out
parasite eggs, allowing the
worms to spread to new
ant colonies.
Ecological Succession
Primary Succession
 Secondary Succession
 Pioneer Species
 Climax Community

Ecological Succession
Primary or Secondary
Primary or Secondary
Primary or Secondary
Primary or Secondary
Primary or Secondary
Primary or Secondary
Primary or Secondary
Bellringer (Begins on pg
436)





How does the greenhouse effect occur?
What is biodiversity?
Compare species richness and species evenness.
Compare species diversity and genetic diversity.
Calculate the species richness and species
evenness for each island. Island X has 50
individuals of species A, 200 of species B and
2000 of species C. Island Y has 300 of species
A, 300 of species B and 500 of 200 of species C
and 500 of species D.
Which island has the greatest biodiversity?
Environmental Issues









Pollution – smog
Ozone thinning
Global Warming
Acide Rain
Biological magnification
Extinction
Keystone species
Sustainability
Environmental Footprint