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Faces, Places, and Cases
Which is the correct penny?
NOTE: You cannot look at a real penny!
Definition of Forensic Science
 The application of science to law
 Applies the knowledge and technology of science for
the definition and enforcement of laws.
 The application of science to those criminal and civil
laws that are enforced by police agencies in a
criminal justice system.
Scope of Forensic Science
 Civil Law vs. Criminal Law
 FDA/DEA regulation
 Vast professions
History of Forensic Science
 B.C. ---Evidence of fingerprints in early paintings
and rock carvings of prehistoric humans
 700’s—The Chinese use fingerprints as a method of
identification on documents and clay
 1000-Quintilian, a Roman attorney, showed that
blood palm prints were meant to frame a blind man
of his mother’s murder
 1248-A Chinese book, His Duan Yu (The Washing
Away of Wrongs) becomes first recorded application
of medical knowledge to the solution of crime.
1839, Chinese Deed of Sale-Signed with
Aboriginal Indian Petroglyph from Nova Scotia
 1686—Marcello Malpighi, noted unique pattern of
fingerprints, but made no mention of their value as a
tool for identification
 1784-John Toms was convicted of murder using torn
newspaper found in a gun wad, that matched a piece
found in his pocket
 1810-First recorded use of document analysis using a
chemical test in Germany
 1813—Mathiew Orfila-Considered father of modern
toxicology. Found ways to determine poisonings and
its effects in animals. Published a book on the topic.
 1823-John Purkinji-published the first paper on the
nature of fingerprints and suggested a class system
of nine major types but he failed to recognize their
individualization potential
 1828-Polarizing light microscope invented by
William Nichol
 1830s—Adolphe Quetelet-believed no two bodies
were identical
 1835-Henry Goddard-First used a bullet to catch a
John Purkinji
Time for a Video Break
 1836-James Marsh-first to used toxicology in a jury
trial (specifically developed a test for arsenic). The
Marsh Test is still in use today.
 1862-J. Izaak Van Deen-developed a presumptive
test for blood using guaiac, a West Indian shrub.
 1864-Odelbrecht-first advocated the use of
photography for the identification of criminals and
for documenting evidence and crime scenes.
 1879-Rudolph Virchow-German pathologist, was one
of the first to both study hair and recognize its
Marsh tests for Arsenic
 1880-Henry Faulds-suggested fingerprints at scene
of crime could identify the offender, used
fingerprints to eliminate an innocent suspect in a
Tokyo crime.
 1883-Alphonse Bertillon-believed and practiced a
system of anthropometry, where no two individuals
had the same body measurements.
 1887-Arthur Conan Doyle-published the first
Sherlock Holmes story.
 In his books, Holmes developed principles of
serology, fingerprinting, firearm identification, and
questioned-document examination long before their
value was known by real CSIs.
 1889-Alexandre Lacassagne-First to try to individualize
bullets to a gun barrel.
 1891-Hans Gross-published “Criminal Investigation”, the
first comprehensive text of uses of physical evidence to
solve crimes. Coined the word “Criminalistics”.
 1892-Sir Francis Galton-published “Fingerprints”, the
first book on the nature of fingerprints and their use in
solving crime.
 Juan Vucetich-Developed fingerprint class system in
Argentina. Argentina was first to replace anthropometry
with fingerprints.
Francis Galton-first to classify fingerprints
Week 1 - Tuesday
Spot the
Differences Dinner
Find the 6 differences between the two pictures.
 Answers: Fish gill, tree stump, cat’s foot, dog’s
mouth, bird’s beak, dog’s ear
 1894-Alfred Dreyfus of France was convicted based
on a mistake made by Bertillon.
 1896-Sir Edward Richard Henry-developed the
fingerprint classification system that would be used
in Europe and North America. Converted these
continents away from use of anthropometry.
 1900-Karl Landsteiner-First discovered human
blood groups.
 1904-Edmond Locard-Locard’s Exchange Principle.
Forensic Pioneers
 Edmond Locard(1877-1966)—advocated the use of
scientific method to crime scene investigation. Was
educated in both medicine and law. Developed a
center for the research and study of forensic science.
He became known as the Father of Forensic Science.
He also developed Locard’s Exchange Principle.
Locard’s Exchange Principle
 The exchange of materials between two objects
that occurs whenever two objects come in contact
with one another.
 Believed that when a criminal came in contact with
an object or person, a cross-transfer of evidence
 Believed that every criminal could be connected to
the crime scene by dust particles carried from the
 1905-In the U.S., President Theodore Roosevelt
establishes the F.B.I.
1910-Edmond Locard-establishes the first police
crime laboratory.
1910-Albert S. Osborne-influential document
examiner, publishes “Questioned Documents”
1915-Leon Lattes-Develops first antibody test for
ABO blood groups. Helps develop paternity testing.
1918-Edmond Locard-first suggested the 12
matching points as positive fingerprint
 1920’s-George Popp-Pioneered use of botanicals in
forensic work
1920’s-Calvin Goddard-perfected the comparison
microscope for use in bullet comparison
1921-John Larson and Leonard Keeler-designed the
portable polygraph
1923- Case of Frye Vs. United States –polygraph test
results are ruled inadmissable.
1924-August Vollmer-LAPD police chief, develops
first police crime lab in U.S.
Week 1 - Wednesday
Case #1:
The Accident
T. Trimpe 2006
There was nothing Leon, the
driver, could do about the
impending crash of the car he
was driving. Leon knew the car
would be completely demolished
in the crash. After the crash
Leon didn’t have a scratch on
him. How can that be?
Leon was driving a remote control car.
He was playing a video game.
Laws Affecting Evidence
 1923- “Frye Vs. U.S.”—the court stated:
The court must decide if questioned procedures used
in collecting or analyzing evidence are “generally
accepted” by a meaningful segment of the relevant
scientific community.
Are there notes, studies, books on the techniques in
 1926- Case of Sacco and Vanzetti –first case
responsible for upholding work of Calvin Goddard
and use of comparison microscope for bullet
1932-F.B.I. crime lab is created
1937—Walter Specht-creates luminol as a
presumptive test for blood
1937-Paul Kirk-Professor in California, creates a
major in technical criminology
1940-Landsteiner-describes Rh groups
 1945-Frank Lundquist-develops acid phosphatase
test for semen
1950-Max Frei-Sulzer- develops the tape lift method
for collection of evidence
1954-R.F. Borkenstein-invents the Breathalyzer
1958-1973- Many more lab based tests are developed
for determining body fluids and trace evidence
1977-Fuseo Matsumar-accidentally notices what
occurs with his fingerprints when in contact with
Super Glue-thus Super Glue fuming technique
 1977-F.B.I. –begins work on A.F.I.S.
 1984-Sir Alec Jeffreys develops first DNA profiling
1986-First use by Jeffreys of DNA testing to solve a
crime-The Colin Pitchfork murder trial.
1983-PCR technique first conceived by Kerry Mullis
1986-First commercial PCR kit produced
1986- PCR used in court trial- Case of People vs.
Pestinikas, First use of DNA testing in U.S. case
 1987-DNA testing challenged in U.S. court. Case of
New York vs. Castro –(quality control guidelines are
put in place to make DNA testing admissable)
 In the same year, RFLP testing convicts Tommy Lee
Andrews of a series of sexual assaults in Florida.
 1991-IBIS is developed-Integrated Ballistics
Identification System-to compare markings on fired
Week 1 - Thursday
Spot the
Differences Happy
Find the 6 differences between the two pictures.
 Answers: Tail feathers, flame, monkey’s tail, lion’s
mane, cake tray, frosting
Laws Affecting Evidence
 1993-Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals—
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that “general
acceptance” or the “Frye” standard is not an
absolute prerequisite to the admissibility of
 The court decided it was up to the trial judge to
ensure that an expert’s testimony rests on a
reliable foundation and is relevant.
Laws affecting evidence cont.
 1999—Kumho Tire Co. v. Carmichael---the court
unanimously ruled that the judge was to also
determine the validity of not only scientific
testimony but expert testimony.
Expert Testimony
 An individual whom the court determines
possesses knowledge relevant to the trial that is not
expected of the average layperson.
 Competency may be established by citation of
educational degrees, participation in special
courses, membership in professional societies, and
any professional articles or books published that
 Also of importance is the number of years
experience the witness has in related areas.
Expert Witness
 The opposing attorney has a chance to cross-examine
the witness and to point out weaknesses in
background and knowledge.
 Witnesses are not allowed to voice personal
 1996-F.B.I. introduces A.F.I.S.—Live scan and card
devices allow interdepartmental submissions
 1996-Case of Tennessee Vs. Ware –mitochondrial
DNA typing admitted for the first time in a U.S.
 1998-NIDIS-F.B.I. DNA database was put into
 1999-F.B.I. upgrades A.F.I.S. to I.A.F.I.S.-to allow
submission and storage of fingerprints in a national
database linked to the F.B.I.
The F.B.I.-The Most Elite Crime Lab in the U.S.
 1932—J. Edgar Hoover directed the FBI to
organized a national crime laboratory to offer
services to all law enforcement agencies in the
 The FBI lab is now the world’s largest crime lab.
 1981—The FBI Forensic Science Research and
Training Center was opened. Is used to train
investigators in the latest techniques and methods.
Crime Labs
 At present there are approx. 320 crime labs
operating at various levels within the U.S.
 Lab staff in these level may range from one to more
than one hundred.
 Additions in staff have been increasing due to rising
levels of drug-related crimes since the 1960’s.
Crime Labs
 The advent of DNA technology has also called for
an increasing number of trained professionals.
 The U.S. government has four major federal crime
laboratories—The FBI(Department of Justice),
The DEA(Department of Justice), The Bureau of
Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms(Dept. of Justice)
and The U.S. Postal Inspection Service.
 Many individual state have satellite labs
throughout their proximities.
Services Provided by Full-Service Crime Labs
 Physical Science Unit—applies principles of
chemistry, physics, and geology to the
identification and comparison of crime-scene
evidence. These scientists may analyze explosives,
soil, drugs, glass, etc.
 Biology Unit—staffed with biologists and
biochemists who apply knowledge of DNA,
serology, drugs, hair/fiber analysis, and
comparison of botanical materials.
Services provided cont.
 Firearms Unit—examine firearms, bullets, shell
casings, and garments/objects for gun powder
 Document Examination Unit—analyze paper and
ink, indented writings, erasures, burned and
charred documents, etc.
 Photography Unit—used to examine and record
evidence and crime scenes, use specialized
photography techniques. May help in courtroom
Optional Services Provided
 Toxicology Unit: used to determine the presence
or absence of drugs and poisons in body fluids,
tissues, or organs.
 Latent Fingerprinting Unit: Are responsible for
processing and examining evidence for latent
 Polygraph Unit: Lie detection
 Voiceprint Analysis Unit: Used to tie suspects to
crimes involving telephone threats, taperecordings, etc.
More Optional Services cont.
 Evidence-Collection Unit: Comprised of specially
trained personnel to the crime scene to collect and
preserve physical evidence.
Week 1 - Friday
Trivia Set #1
T. Trimpe 2006
1. Ted Bundy was an American serial killer who was convicted on
the basis of which type of forensic evidence?
A. Bite marks
C. DNA fingerprinting
B. Latent fingerprints
D. Ballistics
2. The time of death can be calculated by various means. One is
rigor mortis, Latin for 'the stiffness of death'. Another indication is
livor mortis or lividity. What does this term refer to?
A. Cloudiness in the eyes
B. Gravitational pooling of blood
C. Degree of digestion of stomach contents
D. Relaxation of muscles following to rigor mortis
3. When attempting to identify a skeleton, craniofacial morphology
(the structure and form of the skull and face) is the best indicator of
race. One group of human beings has a unique, rounded jaw bone
which is called a 'rocker jaw'. This is a characteristic of which
ethnic group?
A. Australian Aborigines
C. African Americans
B. Chinese
D. Hawaiians
1. Ted Bundy was an American serial killer who was convicted on
basis of which type of forensic evidence?
A. Bite marks
Although he denied being the killer, Bundy made the mistake of biting one of
his victims. So although he lied through his teeth, his teeth marks didn’t lie!
2. The time of death can be calculated by various means. One is
rigor mortis, Latin for 'the stiffness of death'. Another indication is
livor mortis or lividity. What does this term refer to?
B. Gravitational pooling of blood
Livor is Latin for 'a black and blue spot' and refers to the discoloration of the
skin in the lowest part of a cadaver resulting from the gravitational pooling of
3. When attempting to identify a skeleton, craniofacial morphology
(the structure and form of the skull and face) is the best indicator of
race. One group of human beings has a unique, rounded jaw bone
which is called a 'rocker jaw'. This is a characteristic of which
ethnic group?
D. Hawaiians - The 'rocker jaw' is so called because it will rock back and
forth like a rocking chair if gently pushed.