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Faces, Places, and Cases THE HISTORY OF FORENSIC SCIENCE Which is the correct penny? NOTE: You cannot look at a real penny! 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Definition of Forensic Science The application of science to law Applies the knowledge and technology of science for the definition and enforcement of laws. The application of science to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system. Scope of Forensic Science Civil Law vs. Criminal Law FDA/DEA regulation FBI/TBI Vast professions History of Forensic Science B.C. ---Evidence of fingerprints in early paintings and rock carvings of prehistoric humans 700’s—The Chinese use fingerprints as a method of identification on documents and clay 1000-Quintilian, a Roman attorney, showed that blood palm prints were meant to frame a blind man of his mother’s murder 1248-A Chinese book, His Duan Yu (The Washing Away of Wrongs) becomes first recorded application of medical knowledge to the solution of crime. 1839, Chinese Deed of Sale-Signed with fingerprint Aboriginal Indian Petroglyph from Nova Scotia History 1686—Marcello Malpighi, noted unique pattern of fingerprints, but made no mention of their value as a tool for identification 1784-John Toms was convicted of murder using torn newspaper found in a gun wad, that matched a piece found in his pocket 1810-First recorded use of document analysis using a chemical test in Germany 1813—Mathiew Orfila-Considered father of modern toxicology. Found ways to determine poisonings and its effects in animals. Published a book on the topic. History 1823-John Purkinji-published the first paper on the nature of fingerprints and suggested a class system of nine major types but he failed to recognize their individualization potential 1828-Polarizing light microscope invented by William Nichol 1830s—Adolphe Quetelet-believed no two bodies were identical 1835-Henry Goddard-First used a bullet to catch a murderer John Purkinji Time for a Video Break History 1836-James Marsh-first to used toxicology in a jury trial (specifically developed a test for arsenic). The Marsh Test is still in use today. 1862-J. Izaak Van Deen-developed a presumptive test for blood using guaiac, a West Indian shrub. 1864-Odelbrecht-first advocated the use of photography for the identification of criminals and for documenting evidence and crime scenes. 1879-Rudolph Virchow-German pathologist, was one of the first to both study hair and recognize its limitations. Marsh tests for Arsenic History 1880-Henry Faulds-suggested fingerprints at scene of crime could identify the offender, used fingerprints to eliminate an innocent suspect in a Tokyo crime. 1883-Alphonse Bertillon-believed and practiced a system of anthropometry, where no two individuals had the same body measurements. Bertillonage Bertillonage History 1887-Arthur Conan Doyle-published the first Sherlock Holmes story. In his books, Holmes developed principles of serology, fingerprinting, firearm identification, and questioned-document examination long before their value was known by real CSIs. History 1889-Alexandre Lacassagne-First to try to individualize bullets to a gun barrel. 1891-Hans Gross-published “Criminal Investigation”, the first comprehensive text of uses of physical evidence to solve crimes. Coined the word “Criminalistics”. 1892-Sir Francis Galton-published “Fingerprints”, the first book on the nature of fingerprints and their use in solving crime. Juan Vucetich-Developed fingerprint class system in Argentina. Argentina was first to replace anthropometry with fingerprints. Francis Galton-first to classify fingerprints Week 1 - Tuesday Spot the Differences Dinner Time Source: http://www.slylockfox.com/arcade/6diff/index.html Find the 6 differences between the two pictures. Answers Answers: Fish gill, tree stump, cat’s foot, dog’s mouth, bird’s beak, dog’s ear History 1894-Alfred Dreyfus of France was convicted based on a mistake made by Bertillon. 1896-Sir Edward Richard Henry-developed the fingerprint classification system that would be used in Europe and North America. Converted these continents away from use of anthropometry. 1900-Karl Landsteiner-First discovered human blood groups. 1904-Edmond Locard-Locard’s Exchange Principle. Forensic Pioneers Edmond Locard(1877-1966)—advocated the use of scientific method to crime scene investigation. Was educated in both medicine and law. Developed a center for the research and study of forensic science. He became known as the Father of Forensic Science. He also developed Locard’s Exchange Principle. Locard’s Exchange Principle The exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever two objects come in contact with one another. Believed that when a criminal came in contact with an object or person, a cross-transfer of evidence occurred. Believed that every criminal could be connected to the crime scene by dust particles carried from the scene. History 1905-In the U.S., President Theodore Roosevelt establishes the F.B.I. 1910-Edmond Locard-establishes the first police crime laboratory. 1910-Albert S. Osborne-influential document examiner, publishes “Questioned Documents” 1915-Leon Lattes-Develops first antibody test for ABO blood groups. Helps develop paternity testing. 1918-Edmond Locard-first suggested the 12 matching points as positive fingerprint identification. History 1920’s-George Popp-Pioneered use of botanicals in forensic work 1920’s-Calvin Goddard-perfected the comparison microscope for use in bullet comparison 1921-John Larson and Leonard Keeler-designed the portable polygraph 1923- Case of Frye Vs. United States –polygraph test results are ruled inadmissable. 1924-August Vollmer-LAPD police chief, develops first police crime lab in U.S. Week 1 - Wednesday Case #1: The Accident T. Trimpe 2006 http://sciencespot.net/ There was nothing Leon, the driver, could do about the impending crash of the car he was driving. Leon knew the car would be completely demolished in the crash. After the crash Leon didn’t have a scratch on him. How can that be? Leon was driving a remote control car. or He was playing a video game. Laws Affecting Evidence 1923- “Frye Vs. U.S.”—the court stated: The court must decide if questioned procedures used in collecting or analyzing evidence are “generally accepted” by a meaningful segment of the relevant scientific community. Are there notes, studies, books on the techniques in question??? History 1926- Case of Sacco and Vanzetti –first case responsible for upholding work of Calvin Goddard and use of comparison microscope for bullet comparison. 1932-F.B.I. crime lab is created 1937—Walter Specht-creates luminol as a presumptive test for blood 1937-Paul Kirk-Professor in California, creates a major in technical criminology 1940-Landsteiner-describes Rh groups History 1945-Frank Lundquist-develops acid phosphatase test for semen 1950-Max Frei-Sulzer- develops the tape lift method for collection of evidence 1954-R.F. Borkenstein-invents the Breathalyzer 1958-1973- Many more lab based tests are developed for determining body fluids and trace evidence 1977-Fuseo Matsumar-accidentally notices what occurs with his fingerprints when in contact with Super Glue-thus Super Glue fuming technique develops History 1977-F.B.I. –begins work on A.F.I.S. 1984-Sir Alec Jeffreys develops first DNA profiling test 1986-First use by Jeffreys of DNA testing to solve a crime-The Colin Pitchfork murder trial. 1983-PCR technique first conceived by Kerry Mullis 1986-First commercial PCR kit produced 1986- PCR used in court trial- Case of People vs. Pestinikas, First use of DNA testing in U.S. case History 1987-DNA testing challenged in U.S. court. Case of New York vs. Castro –(quality control guidelines are put in place to make DNA testing admissable) In the same year, RFLP testing convicts Tommy Lee Andrews of a series of sexual assaults in Florida. 1991-IBIS is developed-Integrated Ballistics Identification System-to compare markings on fired bullets Week 1 - Thursday Spot the Differences Happy Birthday Source: http://www.slylockfox.com/arcade/6diff/index.html Find the 6 differences between the two pictures. Answers Answers: Tail feathers, flame, monkey’s tail, lion’s mane, cake tray, frosting Laws Affecting Evidence 1993-Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals— The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that “general acceptance” or the “Frye” standard is not an absolute prerequisite to the admissibility of evidence. The court decided it was up to the trial judge to ensure that an expert’s testimony rests on a reliable foundation and is relevant. Laws affecting evidence cont. 1999—Kumho Tire Co. v. Carmichael---the court unanimously ruled that the judge was to also determine the validity of not only scientific testimony but expert testimony. Expert Testimony An individual whom the court determines possesses knowledge relevant to the trial that is not expected of the average layperson. Competency may be established by citation of educational degrees, participation in special courses, membership in professional societies, and any professional articles or books published that relate. Also of importance is the number of years experience the witness has in related areas. Expert Witness The opposing attorney has a chance to cross-examine the witness and to point out weaknesses in background and knowledge. Witnesses are not allowed to voice personal opinions. History 1996-F.B.I. introduces A.F.I.S.—Live scan and card devices allow interdepartmental submissions 1996-Case of Tennessee Vs. Ware –mitochondrial DNA typing admitted for the first time in a U.S. court. 1998-NIDIS-F.B.I. DNA database was put into practice 1999-F.B.I. upgrades A.F.I.S. to I.A.F.I.S.-to allow submission and storage of fingerprints in a national database linked to the F.B.I. The F.B.I.-The Most Elite Crime Lab in the U.S. 1932—J. Edgar Hoover directed the FBI to organized a national crime laboratory to offer services to all law enforcement agencies in the country. The FBI lab is now the world’s largest crime lab. 1981—The FBI Forensic Science Research and Training Center was opened. Is used to train investigators in the latest techniques and methods. Crime Labs At present there are approx. 320 crime labs operating at various levels within the U.S. Lab staff in these level may range from one to more than one hundred. Additions in staff have been increasing due to rising levels of drug-related crimes since the 1960’s. Crime Labs The advent of DNA technology has also called for an increasing number of trained professionals. The U.S. government has four major federal crime laboratories—The FBI(Department of Justice), The DEA(Department of Justice), The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms(Dept. of Justice) and The U.S. Postal Inspection Service. Many individual state have satellite labs throughout their proximities. Services Provided by Full-Service Crime Labs Physical Science Unit—applies principles of chemistry, physics, and geology to the identification and comparison of crime-scene evidence. These scientists may analyze explosives, soil, drugs, glass, etc. Biology Unit—staffed with biologists and biochemists who apply knowledge of DNA, serology, drugs, hair/fiber analysis, and comparison of botanical materials. Services provided cont. Firearms Unit—examine firearms, bullets, shell casings, and garments/objects for gun powder residues Document Examination Unit—analyze paper and ink, indented writings, erasures, burned and charred documents, etc. Photography Unit—used to examine and record evidence and crime scenes, use specialized photography techniques. May help in courtroom presentations. Optional Services Provided Toxicology Unit: used to determine the presence or absence of drugs and poisons in body fluids, tissues, or organs. Latent Fingerprinting Unit: Are responsible for processing and examining evidence for latent fingerprints. Polygraph Unit: Lie detection Voiceprint Analysis Unit: Used to tie suspects to crimes involving telephone threats, taperecordings, etc. More Optional Services cont. Evidence-Collection Unit: Comprised of specially trained personnel to the crime scene to collect and preserve physical evidence. Week 1 - Friday Trivia Set #1 T. Trimpe 2006 http://sciencespot.net/ 1. Ted Bundy was an American serial killer who was convicted on the basis of which type of forensic evidence? A. Bite marks C. DNA fingerprinting B. Latent fingerprints D. Ballistics 2. The time of death can be calculated by various means. One is rigor mortis, Latin for 'the stiffness of death'. Another indication is livor mortis or lividity. What does this term refer to? A. Cloudiness in the eyes B. Gravitational pooling of blood C. Degree of digestion of stomach contents D. Relaxation of muscles following to rigor mortis 3. When attempting to identify a skeleton, craniofacial morphology (the structure and form of the skull and face) is the best indicator of race. One group of human beings has a unique, rounded jaw bone which is called a 'rocker jaw'. This is a characteristic of which ethnic group? A. Australian Aborigines C. African Americans B. Chinese D. Hawaiians 1. Ted Bundy was an American serial killer who was convicted on the basis of which type of forensic evidence? A. Bite marks Although he denied being the killer, Bundy made the mistake of biting one of his victims. So although he lied through his teeth, his teeth marks didn’t lie! 2. The time of death can be calculated by various means. One is rigor mortis, Latin for 'the stiffness of death'. Another indication is livor mortis or lividity. What does this term refer to? B. Gravitational pooling of blood Livor is Latin for 'a black and blue spot' and refers to the discoloration of the skin in the lowest part of a cadaver resulting from the gravitational pooling of blood. 3. When attempting to identify a skeleton, craniofacial morphology (the structure and form of the skull and face) is the best indicator of race. One group of human beings has a unique, rounded jaw bone which is called a 'rocker jaw'. This is a characteristic of which ethnic group? D. Hawaiians - The 'rocker jaw' is so called because it will rock back and forth like a rocking chair if gently pushed.