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Intro to Forensic Science Ms. Clark PVMHS What is Forensic Science? What is Forensic Science? • FORENSIC derives from the Latin word “Forensis” which means “of the forum” – An open area where scholars would debate – Crimes were solved by debate What is Forensic Science? • “The application of scientific knowledge and methodology to legal problems and criminal investigations.” Forensic Science Careers Criminologist: Detectives that study physical evidence to link it to suspects Digital/Multimedia Scientist: Assist in collecting & analyzing digital evidence Toxicologist: Determine any substances in a victim’s or suspect’s system Engineering Scientist: Analyze accidents and crime scenes to determine how, when, and why things happened Odontologist: Identify remains, usually using dental remains, and assist with determining cause/time of death Medical Examiner: Perform autopsies and assist with determining cause/time of death Anthropologist: Study the bones of a victim and assist with determining cause/time or death Entomologist: Study insect evidence and assist with determining time of death Psychologist: Understand a victim or suspect from a mental health standpoint Document Expert: Answer questions regarding documents, such as whether or not a signature is real and if a document has been altered An abbreviated history of Forensics rd 3 Century BC Chinese use fingerprints to sign contracts or as a “signature” on letters. They were also used to sign art & literature. 1686 Marcello Malpighi describes the characteristics of fingerprints – ridges, spirals, loops 1786 One of the first recorded instances of physical evidence used to solve a crime. Paper that was used to wrap a murder weapon, was also found in the pocket of John Toms, who was subsequently convicted of murder. 1880 Henry Faulds, a Scottish physician, was the first scientist to publish a report suggesting fingerprints can be used to identify criminals. While working in Japan he used fingerprints to clear an innocent man of burglary. 1883 Alphonse Bertillon, a police officer and statistician, invented a system of body measurements that was used to identify criminals. Anthropometry 1889 Alexandre Lacassagne, a French physician and criminologist, founded the Lacassagne school of criminology in Lyon. Edmund Locard worked as his assistant. Was the first to use the grooves on a bullet to match it to a gun. 1893 Hans Gross, an Austrian criminologist, publishes the first book on criminal investigation. 1901 Sir Edward Henry established the first fingerprint classification system in Britain. Also credited with introducing police dogs to the London police force. 1903 First official use of fingerprints in the United States (New York City Civil Service Commission). 1905 President Theodore Roosevelt establishes the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 1910 Edmond Locard establishes the first police crime lab. Formulated Locard’s exchange principle – the basic principle of forensic science, every contact leaves a trace. 1916 Detective Albert Schneider if the first scientist to use a vacuum tool to collect trace evidence. 1921 John Larson and Leonard Keeler develop the first polygraph machine 1924 First US Crime lab established in Los Angeles, California. 1924 FBI consolidates over 800,000 fingerprint files from across the United States. 1948 America Association of Forensic Sciences (A.A.F.S.) is founded in Chicago. 1974 Electron microscope technique for the detecting of gun shot residue is developed at Aerospace Corporation. 1975 The FBI introduces the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS). This system allows the computerized scan of fingerprints. 1977 Latent fingerprints are developed using superglue for the first time. 1986 Sir Alec Jeffreys, a British geneticist, develops DNA fingerprinting. 1987 The first use of DNA fingerprinting in England leads to the conviction of Colin Pitchford on charges of murder. The first use of DNA fingerprinting in the US leads to the conviction of Tommy Lee Andrews, in Orlando, Florida, on charges of rape and burglary. 1992: the Innocence Project The goal of the Innocence Project is to exonerate persons who have been wrongfully convicted of a crime. Barry Scheck & Peter Neufeld 1998 National Data Index System - FBI database linking DNA data throughout the United States. “CODIS” encompasses all databases 2008 Footwear Intelligence Technology is developed in the UK; it’s the first footwear coding system & database. Any questions?