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CHAPTER 6: FLEXIBILITY FLEXIBILITY Flexibility is the ability to move body joints through a full range of motion. A joint is the point at which two bones come together. The amount of movement in a joint is limited by the way it is formed. SOFT TISSUES Soft tissue includes ligaments, muscles, or tendons. These tissues allow movement within certain joints that could increase range of motion in a particular joint. Exercises can enhance a person’s range of motion. Ligament - strong tissue that connects bone to bone Muscle - tissue surrounding bone Tendon - secures the muscle to bone TYPES OF STRETCHING A. Safe stretching: Static- slowly move muscle to stretching point and hold for 15-30 seconds. Dynamic- slow controlled movements to induce stretching Isostatic- muscle is taken to its fullest stretch and with a partner pushed beyond that limit. . B. Unsafe stretching: Ballistic- jerky or bouncing movements. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Do not perform ballistic stretching When partner stretching be sure to maintain good communication Do not attempt to stretch as far as someone else Be sure to use proper technique when doing flexibility exercise WHY IS FLEXIBILITY IMPORTANT? Reduces Injuries - Lack of flexibility can result in joint or muscle injuries. Flexibility decreases with weight training and aerobic conditioning. Each muscle that is strengthened must also be stretched to maintain and improve flexibility. Prevents Post-Exercise Pain - Post exercise pain and stiffness can be prevented or reduces by stretching exercises. A proper warm-up and cool-down will help prevent muscle soreness. Warm-up increases blood supply and raises the temperature with in the muscles making them more flexible. A cool-down prevents blood from pooling in active muscles. Reduces Lower Back Pain - Eighty percent of the population in the U.S. suffers from lower back pain. Adequate flexibility in the lower back and posterior thighs can do much to prevent this. Relieves Emotional Stress - Stretching is one of many exercises that can help relax tense muscles. Sometimes tight muscles are caused from emotional tension. CHAPTER 7: CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS Is the body’s ability to continuously provide oxygen to muscles as work is performed over an extended time. Cardiovascular training will help you strengthen the heart and improve the body’s ability to use oxygen HEART RATE Pulse – caused by pressure of the blood on the artery wall. Resting heart rate: Your heart rate when you are at rest. Average resting H.R. = 70 BPM (Beats per minute) for adults - 100 for children Range for normal resting HR = 50-100 BPM Recovery heart rate: Your heart’s ability to return to a resting rate after exercise. The ability for your heart to recover has a direct relationship with your cardiovascular level of health. 5-6 minutes after exercise your heart should return to about 120 BPM 10 minutes after exercise your heart should return to about 100 BPM If your heart rate does not fall to or below these numbers after a workout you should reduce the intensity of your workout. BENEFITS OF CARDIOVASCULAR EXERCISE Strengthens heart Increased breathing efficiency Reduces stress Increases alertness More restful sleep Reduces risk of osteoporosis APPLICATION OF TRAINING PRINCIPLES Main purpose of a cardiovascular fitness program is to increase the body’s ability to use oxygen. Must engage in exercises that involve movements of the large muscle groups at an increased level of intensity for 20 minutes or more. CHAPTER 8: MUSCULAR FITNESS MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE Muscular strength is the ability of a muscle group to apply maximum force against a resistance one time. Muscular endurance is the ability to repeat muscle movement over a period of time. MYTHS ABOUT WEIGHT TRAINING Myth: Women will become muscular if they weight train Fact: Women have estrogen rather than testosterone as their primary sex hormone which prevents females from developing large muscle definition. Females also average 8% more body fat than males, which masks muscle definition. Myth: You can turn fat into muscle Fact: Muscle does not turn to fat and fat does not turn to muscle. Muscles atrophy or become smaller and weaker when they are not used. APPLICATION OF TRAINING PRINCIPLES Three factors to improve muscular fitness: 1. Frequency: You should perform strength training exercises 2-3 times/week. 2. Intensity: overload of the muscle is achieved by making it work harder than normal. Intensity (or amount of weight) you would lift to improve muscular strength should be 60-90% of what you could lift at one time. The amount of weight needed to improve muscular endurance would be 3050% of what you could lift at one time. 3. Time: Number of times the exercise is performed – REPETITION Group of repetitions is called a set. Muscular endurance – light weight and 3 sets of 12-20 reps Muscular strength – heavy weights and 3 sets of 4-8 reps WIEGHT TRAINING CONSIDERATIONS 1. Safety considered first 2. Train with a partner 3. Warm up 4. Concentrate on endurance when beginning a weight training program 5. Check equipment before use 6. Know proper technique to lift MUSCULAR FITNESS EXERCISES 1. Shoulders a. Lateral raise b. Shoulder Shrug c. Upright rowing 2. Arms a. Front Curl / concentration curls (Biceps) b. c. d. e. Reverse curl (forearms) Tricep Extension (triceps) Tricep Press Reverse wrist curl 3. Chest a. Bench press b. Dumbbell fly c. Dumbbell Press d. Push up 4. Back a. Lat pull down b. Seated row c. Bent over row d. Reverse fly e. Pull up 5. Legs a. Leg extension b. Leg curls c. Squats d. Lunges e. Step ups CHAPTER 13: EVALUATION OF ACTIVITIES WHAT ACTIVITIES ARE BEST FOR YOU? Identify which components of physical fitness you need to improve on. List the activities you enjoy. Choose activities that will manage or minimize your stress. If you have skills in a sport utilize those in your activity choices. Choose activities that you can do alone or with others. Think about when and where you will be exercising. If your activities include equipment or facility needs make sure they are attainable. WHAT ACTIVITIES ARE AVAILABLE FOR YOU? Aerobic Dance (high impact or low impact) Aqua dynamics Spinning Bicycling Swimming Calisthenics Circuit Training Fitness Trails Interval training Weight Training Jogging/Walking Pilates/Yoga Jumping Rope WHAT DO YOU NEED TO CONSIDER WHEN CHOOSING YOUR ACTIVITIES? Health needs Sports skills Stress diversion Personality and attitudes Alone or with others Competitive or non-competitive Self-directed or coached Indoors or outdoors Financial considerations Availability of facilities Environmental considerations (weather, climate) CHAPTER 9: NUTRITION HOW DO WE CHOOSE WHAT WE EAT? People eat and like what their families eat and like. People eat what has been prepared for them since they were born. Friends, where you live, and ethnic background are also factors in a person’s diet. Lifestyle determines what you eat. People are too busy to prepare meals so they eat fast food. Cost of food Advertisements Religious preferences FOOD AND ITS RELATION TO HEALTH Food is the fuel that keeps your body going. Diets that promote weight loss without sound nutritional practices may be considered fad diet and are unhealthy. Serious illness occurs when bodies are deprived of essential nutrients over a long period of time. ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS 1. Proteins a. Building blocks of the body b. Present in every cell of the body c. Function-Aid in growth and repair of your body’s tissues d. Supplies energy when there are not enough carbohydrates or fats in the diet e. Main source of protein-meat, poultry, fish and beans 2. Carbohydrates a. Fuel for active lifestyle b. Breads, cereals, fruits, concentrated sweets c. Perfect source of energy d. Used by the body easily and quickly, and are used before fats and proteins e. Starches and sugars 1. glucose is “blood sugar” 2. glucose is a primary source of energy for the cells of the body f. Fiber 1. Helps move waste through digestive system 2. Helps lower risk of several diseases 3. Sources – whole grain breads and cereals, fruits and vegetables 3. Fats a. Yield twice as much energy as proteins or carbohydrates, but not as easily digested. b. Foods containing fats are divided into two groups: 1. animal fats – saturated: meat, poultry, milk, cheese, ice-cream, egg yolks 2. vegetable fats – unsaturated: margarine, salad dressings, vegetable oils, olives, nuts, avocados 3. both affect cholesterol c. Cholesterol 1. wax like, fatty substance that is produced by the body in the liver and is used for building cells 2. eating saturated fats adds additional cholesterol to the body 3. is transported through the blood stream with excess being stored on the blood vessel walls 4. in excessive amounts results in blocked arteries that limit blood flow to the brain and heart d. HDL and LDL 1. good cholesterol – HDL high density lipoprotein 2. bad cholesterol – LDL- low density lipoprotein 3. HDL helps remove extra cholesterol 4. LDL leads to the build up of cholesterol on the artery walls 4. Minerals a. There are 20 minerals found in the body. Some of the more common examples are: 1. Calcium 2. Iron 3. Potassium 4. Sodium 5. Vitamins Organic, chemical substances found in small amounts of food Aids in the growth and maintenance of body Aids in the utilization and absorption of nutrients Vitamins are required so the body can use carbohydrates, fats and proteins for energy and other normal functioning of body organs. Consumer concerns regarding vitamins a. many vitamins can not be stored by the body and the excess is excreted in the urine b. toxicity may result if the vitamins that can be stored are taken in large doses Balanced approach to vitamins a. eat a balanced diet b. if you are deficient in a vitamin take a supplement 6. Water Is an essential substance and the most important nutrient Water makes up about 65% of the body Functions: a. carries dissolved waste products from the body b. helps digest food c. Carries nutrients throughout body d. Critical to temperature control FDA FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID: (see poster/handout) Four Basic Food Groups 1. 2. 3. 4. Milk-Cheese group (4 servings) Meat-poultry-fish-bean group (2 servings) Fruit-vegetable group (4 servings) Bread-cereal group ( 4 servings) Determining Daily Caloric Requirements 1. Requirements to support daily body functions depend on: a. Body mass b. Amount of physical activity 2. Basal Metabolism a. Amount of energy required to maintain daily functions b. Decreases with age c. Affected by body fat percentage CHAPTER 10: BODY COMPOSITION AND WEIGHT CONTROL BODY TYPE (somatotypes – banana, pear vs apple, hourglass vs rectangle) are dependent on genetic make up inherited from parents. BODY COMPOSITION Ratio (displayed in a percentage) of lean body mass to fat body mass. Lean body mass consists of: muscle tissue bones tendons ligaments Body fat: a. Consists of stored calories that have not been burned up. b. To determine the percentage of body fat and lean body mass use the following formula: EXAMPLE: A person weighing 140 lbs. and has 20% body fat, then 28 lbs of their weight is fat (140lbs. x 20% = 28lbs) The other 80%, or 112 lbs is lean body mass. c. Height and weight (BMI) charts can be misleading. d. Muscle weighs more than fat and takes up less space than the same amount of fat. OVERWEIGHT VS OBESE 1. Overweight – exceeding the desirable body weight by 10% 2. Obese – excessive amount of body fat – you can be obese without being overweight IDEAL BODY WEIGHT How much you would weigh if you had an appropriate percentage of body fat. Weight at which you look good and feel good. Correct or ideal % of body fat varies with age and sex. AGE MALES FEMALES Up to 30 9%-15% 14%-21% 30-50 11%-17% 15%-23% 50-up 12%-19% 16%-25% WEIGHT LOSS, GAIN, AND MAINTENANCE Calorie – measurement of energy. 1 pound = 3500 calories Weight gain or weight loss can be achieved by: a. Changing caloric intake b. Changing caloric output c. Combination of the two Weight loss (to lose a pound a week) a. Consume 500 calories less each day than daily output. b. Increase exercise each day in an amount that is equal to burning 500 calories. c. Combination of the two, consuming 250 calories less and exercise equal to burning 250 calories. Weight gain (to gain a pound a week) a. Consume 500 calories more each day than your daily output. b. Reduce exercise each day by the amount that is equal to burning 500 calories. c. Combination of the two, consuming 250 calories more and reducing your exercise load by the amount that would be equal to burning 250 calories. Weight maintenance a. Caloric intake should be the same as your caloric output. b. Maintaining ideal body weight is achieved through diet, exercise and having a healthy combination of the two. Eating Smart a. Eat in moderation (don’t over-eat). b. Eat a good balance of all your food groups. c. Eat a variety of foods. Long Haul Concept a. Weight loss is usually longer lasting if it is gradual. b. 1-2 lbs. per week at the most should be gained or lost. Weight Control Misconceptions You can not lose a large amount of weight quickly by exercising. Spot reducing (the idea that you can reduce the amount of fat in a specific area of the body) – is not possible. Exercise will increase appetite – exercise actually decreases appetite. Glandular problems – only a small % of overweight people are overweight due to glandular problems.