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Year Group Grade Year 8 Science 8 2 8A Food and Nutrition Expected Attainment Confident Emerging Correctly use the term: diet. Recall why we need food (energy, growth and repair, health). State what is shown on food labelling. Recall the names of the nutrients in food. Interpret nutrition information labels. Use nutrition information labels to perform calculations. Recall what is meant by a balanced diet. Explain the benefits of a balanced diet and correctly use the term: malnutrition. Explain how deficiency diseases are caused. Describe the factors that may lead to obesity. Identify and recall the main parts of the human digestive system. Explain why digestion is necessary. Describe the functions of the organs in the human digestive system. Describe the role of enzymes as catalysts in digestion. Recall some benefits and drawbacks of bacteria in the digestive system. Recall what happens in respiration (only in terms of releasing energy from food using oxygen). Recall where digested food enters the blood. Describe the function of blood plasma. Describe the features of the small intestine wall. Explain how diffusion occurs in terms of movement of particles. Explain the short- and long-term effects of alcohol. Advanced Describe the uses of fibre and water by the body. Describe tests for fat and starch. Interpret results from simple food tests (e.g. fat, starch, protein, vitamin C). Describe the effects of obesity on health. Use dietary advice and nutrition information to design a healthy diet. Interpret Reference Intake (RI) information. Recall and identify examples of deficiency diseases (kwashiorkor, scurvy, rickets). Explain the links between specific forms of malnutrition, diet and lifestyle. Describe what happens during ingestion, absorption and egestion. Explain how food is moved through the digestive system. Use a model to describe basic enzyme action. Explain how the structure of the small intestine allows efficient absorption of the soluble products of digestion. Explain how the cells in the small intestine are adapted to absorb nutrients quickly. Use a knowledge of diffusion to explain how nutrients enter the blood from the small intestine. Mastery Interpret results from food tests for reducing and non-reducing sugars (glucose and sucrose). Describe the causes and control of Type 2 diabetes. Evaluate different models of basic enzyme action. Explain how bile helps in the digestion of lipids. Year Group Grade Year 8 Science 8 2 8B Plants and Reproduction Expected Attainment Confident Emerging Describe the key characteristics of the five kingdoms of organisms and use this to assign organisms to their kingdoms. Correctly use the term biodiversity. Explain how organisms are classified, using smaller and smaller groupings of shared characteristics. Correctly use the terms asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. Recall ways in which plants reproduce asexually. Identify and give examples of inherited variation. Describe how the fusing of gametes (sex cells) and their nuclei during fertilisation form a fertilised egg cell. Correctly use the terms species and hybrid. Correctly use the term pollination. Identify the main structures in a flower and identify those that are male and those that are female. Use flower structure and pollen shape to identify wind-pollinated and insect-pollinated flowers. Describe the functions of structures in flowers. Identify different structures within a seed. Identify different kinds of fruits and describe how they disperse seeds. Describe the events that occur after pollination leading to fertilisation. Describe how the fusing of male and female gametes and their nuclei during fertilisation forms a fertilised egg cell (or zygote). Describe how a fertilised egg cell grows into an embryo. Advanced Identify the genus and species names from a binomial name. Explain why preserving biodiversity is important (useful products, organism interactions, enriches our lives, disaster recovery). Explain how inherited variation is caused (does not include genes). Explain the difference in outcomes of asexual and sexual reproduction in plants. Identify pollen grains and ovules as containing the male and female gametes. Describe how the structures of a flower are adapted to their functions. Describe how plants avoid selfpollination. Explain why plants try to avoid selfpollination. Explain how some pollen grains are adapted to their functions. Explain the functions of the different parts of a seed. Explain the importance of seed dispersal. Evaluate different methods of seed dispersal. Mastery Use simple calculations (e.g. biodiversity index) to compare biodiversity. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction in plants in different conditions Evaluate different methods of pollination. Describe the importance of hybridisation in plant breeding. Explain the production of seedless fruits using hybridisation. Year Group 8 Grade Year 8 Science 2 8C Breathing and Respiration Expected Attainment Confident Emerging Identify and recall the main organs in the human gaseous exchange system. Correctly use the terms: breathing, breathing rate, ventilation, inhalation, exhalation. Describe the functions of the organs in the human gaseous exchange system and what happens during gas exchange. Describe how muscles attached to ribs and the diaphragm produce breathing movements and use a model to explain how lungs expand and contract. Describe the structure of the lungs. Explain how diffusion occurs in terms of movement of particles. Describe how breathing rate and heart rate are affected by exercise. Recall some harmful chemicals in tobacco smoke. Recall ways in which gas exchange in the lungs can be reduced. Describe how substances reach respiring cells from the blood and how waste products are returned to the blood. Describe the effects of nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke. Describe how asthma, emphysema and tobacco tar can reduce gas exchange. Compare respiration in plants and animals. Describe ways in which respiration can be detected (limewater, hydrogen carbonate indicator, heat). Recall what happens in anaerobic respiration in humans. Explain why aerobic and anaerobic respiration occur in humans at the same time. Advanced Use a pressure model to explain ventilation. Explain how specialised cells keep the lungs clean (mucus production and ciliated epithelial cells). Explain how the lungs are adapted for efficient gas exchange. Explain the changes in heartbeat and breathing rate during exercise. Explain some of the effects of reduced oxygen supply on the body. Explain the effects of some chemicals in tobacco smoke on the body. Describe how gas exchange occurs in plants. Compare the human gaseous exchange system with those of other animals. Recall that anaerobic respiration releases less energy than aerobic respiration. Model anaerobic respiration using a word equation. Describe how lactic acid is removed from tissues. Explain why anaerobic activity cannot be sustained. Analyse and explain the changes in heartbeat and breathing rate during and after exercise (including EPOC/oxygen debt). Mastery Explain how and why a concentration gradient is maintained for oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and lungs. Explain why exercise is recommended to help people with cardiovascular disease. Compare the efficiencies of different gas exchange organs. Identify the limitations of lungs, gills and body surface covering as sites of gas exchange. Explain the effects of poisons that disrupt certain metabolic processes. Year Group Grade Year 8 Science 8 2 8D Unicellular Organisms Expected Attainment Confident Emerging Recall the life processes (MRS GREN). Recall the five kingdoms of organisms. State the meaning of: multicellular, unicellular. Identify organisms that are unicellular and those that are multicellular. Explain why multicellular organisms need efficient transport systems. Use a knowledge of diffusion to explain how materials enter and leave unicellular organisms. Recall that some foods, such as bread, beer and wine, are made using yeast. Recall the conditions under which yeast grow quickly. Recall what happens in aerobic and anaerobic respiration in yeast. Explain what happens in fermentation. Explain how yeast can be used to make both alcoholic drinks and bread. Recall the conditions under which algae grow quickly. Define feeding relationships in terms of energy flow. Explain how changes in a physical environmental factor affect the distribution of organisms. Describe what happens in photosynthesis. Describe, identify and state the basic functions of common parts of protoctist cells (cell wall, flagella, cilia, pseudopods, cytoplasm, cell membrane, chloroplast, nucleus). Correctly use the terms: ecosystem, decomposer. Give examples of decomposer microorganisms. State the names of the compounds in which carbon is held in an ecosystem. Describe the methods by which carbon is recycled in an ecosystem. Explain the importance of decomposers in an ecosystem. Model the recycling of carbon in an ecosystem using the carbon cycle. Advanced Use the key characteristics of microorganism cell structure to classify microorganisms. Justify the lack of a virus kingdom. Describe how yeast multiply by budding. Describe what is happening in the different parts of a growth curve. Explain the functions of light and chlorophyll in photosynthesis (in terms of energy transfer). Model photosynthesis using a word equation. Make predictions about how changes in physical and biological factors will affect carbon supply in an ecosystem. Mastery Explain the importance of surface area:volume ratio for organisms. Use graphs to calculate population growth rates. Apply microbial growth rates to growth curves of other organisms. Explain how eutrophication occurs and the problems associated with eutrophication in an aquatic environment. Explain ways in which decay can be prevented, such as freezing, refrigeration, drying, canning, salting, jamming, pickling and pasteurisation. Year Group Grade Year 8 Science 8 2 Emerging 8E Combustion Expected Attainment Confident State what happens to mass in a chemical reaction. State the meaning of: oxidation. Describe the reactions of metals with oxygen. Identify and explain the products formed by the oxidation of metals. Name the three sides of the fire triangle. Describe how to stay safe in familiar situations. Recognise hazard symbols. Use the idea of the ‘fire triangle’ to explain how to extinguish a fire. Explain why different types of fire need to be put out in different ways. Recall examples of non-metal oxide pollutants caused by burning fossil fuels and their impurities. Describe the reactions of non-metals with oxygen. Recall some effects of global warming, climate change. Recall reasons why the temperature on the Earth varies over time. Explain how human activity affects the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Advanced Explain the change in mass seen in reactions. Compare and contrast the oxygen and phlogiston theories for combustion. Describe what is meant by exothermic changes. Compare the temperature rise of water when some fuels are burnt. Apply knowledge of explosive reactions to explain why they occur more/less rapidly when variables (proportion of fuel/oxygen mixture, the droplet size, the oxidiser) are changed. Explain the products formed by the complete and incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Explain the problems caused by incomplete combustion. Explain how sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are produced in some combustion reactions. Explain how sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides help to cause acid rain. Explain how neutralisation can be used to reduce pollution from fossil fuel combustion. Explain how vehicle catalytic converters work (to reduce pollution from fossil fuel combustion). Explain the effects of acid rain on organisms, bodies of water. State the meaning of the greenhouse effect. Explain how carbon dioxide helps to cause the greenhouse effect. Explain how methods of controlling the levels of carbon dioxide work. Mastery Evaluate the evidence used to displace the phlogiston theory of combustion. Model simple reactions using symbol equations. Justify methods of risk reduction. Evaluate data on burning fuels to deduce the best energy per gram of fuel. Evaluate ways in which pollution from non-metal oxides can be reduced. Decide how responsibility for cutting emissions should be shared. Evaluate the contribution made by combustion to the amount of carbon dioxide in the air in the short, medium and long term. Evaluate the link between global temperature and levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Year Group 8 Grade Year 8 Science 2 8F The Periodic Table Expected Attainment Confident Emerging Recall that different elements have different physical properties. Identify the chemical symbols for some common elements and vice versa. Record two-letter symbols correctly. Describe Dalton’s ideas about atoms. Use a simple (Dalton’s) atomic model to describe an element. Use a simple (Dalton’s) atomic model to describe a compound. Explain how chemical reactions are different from physical changes. Explain the difference between physical and chemical properties of a substance. Use observations to decide whether a chemical reaction has taken place. Model simple chemical reactions using word equations. Use a simple (Dalton’s) atomic model to describe a compound. Use the periodic table to look up symbols. Identify the alkali metals, halogens, (transition metals) and noble gases in the periodic table. State what elements in the same group of the periodic table share. Recall that the noble gases are chemically inert compared with other elements. Describe the reactions of metals with oxygen. Describe the reactions of non-metals with oxygen. Describe the reactions of metals with water. Use the reactions of some alkali metals with water to predict the reactions of other alkali metals with water (in terms of what happens, not reactivity). Advanced Use the idea of atoms to explain why different elements have different physical properties. Model more complex chemical reactions using word equations. Describe how atoms are rearranged in chemical reactions. Write simple chemical formulae from information on structure. Interpret formulae to identify the types of and ratio of atoms in a compound. Recall the typical properties of alkali metals. Recall the typical properties of halogens. Explain how Mendeleev made predictions using his table. Describe how the periodic table is arranged (in terms of elements in groups of similar properties). Compare the physical and chemical properties of metal and non-metal oxides. Recall there is usually a regular gradation in chemical properties as you go down a group. Use data to identify trends in chemical properties within a group. Identify a pattern of reactivity in the reaction between some alkali metals and water and use this to predict the reactivity of other alkali metals. Mastery Use information about reaction ratios to calculate atomic masses. Give a simple description of the valency of an element and use this to deduce the formula of compounds (containing two main group elements). Explain how Mendeleev originally arranged the periodic table by placing the elements in order of atomic weight. State that atoms can be joined up to make molecules or giant lattice structures. Describe the difference between molecules and giant lattice structures. Year Group Grade Year 8 Science 8 2 8G Metals and their uses Expected Attainment Confident Emerging Describe the corrosion of metals by reactions with oxygen. Identify and explain the products formed by the oxidation of metals. State the meaning of: rusting. Recall ways in which iron can be prevented from rusting. Recall some reactions that happen slowly and some that happen quickly. Relate the uses of different elements to their chemical properties. Describe the reactions of different metals with water. Describe the gas test for hydrogen. Relate the uses of different elements to their chemical properties. Describe the reactions of acids with metals. Recall which salts are produced by which acids. Recall some reactions that happen slowly and some that happen quickly. Relate the uses of different elements to their chemical properties. Describe what happens during changes of state. State what happens at a material’s melting, freezing and boiling point. State what is meant by: pure. State the meaning of: alloy. Explain why metals are often alloyed with other elements. Advanced Model simple oxidation reactions using word equations. Explain how barrier methods protect iron from rust. Identify the products and reactants using a symbol equation. Identify and explain the products formed by the reactions of metals with water. Model simple reactions of metals and water using word equations. Use information on the reactions of metals with water to place them in an order of reactivity. Supply missing reactants or products to complete a symbol equation. Model simple reactions of metals and acids using word equations. Use information on the reactions of metals with acids to place them in order of reactivity. Model simple reactions using symbol equations. State that a pure material has a fixed melting point and boiling point. Describe how impurities alter melting, freezing and boiling points. Identify a pure substance from its melting or boiling point. Use models to explain why converting pure metals into alloys often increases the strength of the product. Mastery Model simple reactions using balanced symbol equations. Use ideas about reactivity to explain how sacrificial metals can protect iron from rusting. Write and derive the formulae for common acids and simple salts, given the ratios of atoms or the formulae of reactants. Model simple reactions using balanced symbol equations. Describe some ways in which purity is stated. Plot and interpret graphs of melting point or boiling point for mixtures of varying compositions. Year Group Grade Year 8 Science 8 2 8H Rocks Expected Attainment Confident Emerging Recall what earthquakes and volcanoes are. Recall some uses for rocks and some products made from limestone. State what rocks are made of. Recall why different rocks have different properties. Recall some examples of rocks with different textures. Explain why certain rocks are porous and/or permeable. Recall that the Earth consists of a core, mantle and crust. Describe how magma can be erupted to form volcanoes. Describe how igneous rocks are formed. Recall the names of some igneous and metamorphic rocks. Describe the textures and properties of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Describe how metamorphic rocks are formed. Explain how the size of crystals in igneous rocks is evidence for the speed of cooling and describe some factors that affect this. Recall some examples of physical changes and of chemical changes. Describe the effect of physical and biological weathering on rocks. Explain why rainwater is slightly acidic. Describe the effect of chemical weathering on rocks. Recall how weathered rocks are eroded and explain how fragments get worn down during transport. Describe the link between the size of rock fragments carried and the water speed. Recall the names of some sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Describe the textures and properties of sedimentary rocks. Describe how sedimentary rocks are formed. Describe the link between the size of rock fragments deposited and the water or wind speed. Advanced Relate features of a landscape to the type of rock and how it has weathered. Explain why certain rocks are used for certain applications. Use crystal size to classify igneous rocks as intrusive and extrusive. Explain the variation in crystal size in an igneous intrusion, in terms of cooling rate. Describe how weathering can break up rocks. Compare the fragment sizes that can be transported by wind, water and ice. Describe how fossils are formed. Relate the grain size and roundness to transport history. Use the rock cycle model to link the formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Appreciate the different timescales involved in different rock cycle processes, and give examples of fast and slow processes. Mastery Interpret formulae to identify the types of, and ratio of, atoms in a compound. Compare the densities of igneous rocks and relate them to the minerals contained in the rocks. Describe features in limestone landscapes and relate them to the way they were formed. Compare quantitative data about the effect of speed on the size of grain that can be transported. Year Group Grade Year 8 Science 8 2 8I Fluids Expected Attainment Confident Emerging Recall that ice is less dense than water. Describe the ways in which the volume and density changes during the water–ice transition are different from other materials. Explain how chemical changes are different from physical changes and recall some examples of each type. Recall that a change of state of a pure substance takes place at a constant temperature. State what is meant by gas pressure and recall some of its effects. Recall that pressure in a fluid changes with depth. Describe how pressure in a fluid increases with depth. Use the particle model of matter to describe the causes of pressure in fluids. State what is meant by upthrust. Explain why an object floats. Recall the factors that affect the amount of upthrust on an object. Recall the different types of resistive forces and describe how they affect movement. Describe how drag changes with speed. Explain the effects of balanced forces in simple situations. Advanced Describe the effect of physical weathering on rocks and explain it in terms of expansion and contraction. Explain what happens to particles and temperature during changes of state, in terms of energy and forces. Explain some effects caused by air or water pressure using ideas about forces. Use the particle model of matter to explain atmospheric pressure in different situations. Explain why pressure in a fluid increases with depth. Use the particle model of matter to explain why gas pressure changes with temperature, number of particles and volume. Work out if something will float. Use ideas about density changes to explain how a hot air balloon flies/how the depth of a submarine is controlled. Describe the ways in which the size of drag forces can be changed. Describe the causes of air and water resistance. Explain why a vehicle needs a force from the engine to keep moving at a constant speed. Mastery Compare densities of materials and link them to the mass of the particles and how closely they pack together. Explain why ice is less dense than water. Use the idea of latent heats when discussing changes of state. Apply ideas about pressure to barometers and altimeters. Use the equation relating pressure to the depth and density of a liquid. Explain that the upthrust depends on the weight of fluid displaced. Use ideas about displacement to explain phenomena connected with floating and sinking. Use and interpret the equation linking drag, density, speed and frontal area. Year Group Grade Year 8 Science 8 2 8J Light Expected Attainment Confident Emerging State the meaning of: reflect, scatter, transmit, absorb, reflection, angle of incidence, angle of reflection, normal, plane mirror. Describe some uses of plane mirrors. Describe the difference between even reflection and scattering, and recall the law of reflection. Use the ray model of light to explain how we see things that are not sources of light. Describe some uses of lenses. State the meaning of: refraction, angle of refraction, refracted ray, convex lens, converging lens. Recall that light, sound travels at different speeds in different materials. Draw ray diagrams to describe the refraction of light as it passes into and out of different media. Describe the effects of convex lenses on parallel beams of light. Recall the primary colours for light. Identify the parts of the eye (including rods and cones) and state their functions. Identify the parts of a camera and state their functions. Describe how to split light into different colours using a prism and correctly use the terms: spectrum, dispersion. Recall the colours of the visible spectrum, in order. Recall that the appearance of an object depends on the colour of light shining on it. Recall that filters can be used to make coloured light. Advanced State the meaning of: diffuse, specular, incident ray, reflected ray. Use the ray model of light to explain how a periscope works. Use ray diagrams to explain the law of reflection and to describe the differences in light reflected from smooth and rough surfaces. Describe the characteristics of the image formed by a plane mirror and use ray diagrams to explain its formation. Explain why refraction occurs. State the meaning of focal length, focus, and principal axis. Relate the power of a lens to its shape. Use ray diagrams to explain image formation in pinhole cameras. Identify which parts of the eye cause refraction of light and describe how light is focused on the retina. Describe similarities and differences between cameras and eyes. Describe some examples of the absorption of energy transferred by light leading to chemical or electrical effects (in the retina or in a camera sensor). Describe how secondary colours of white light can be made from primary colours of light. Describe the way our eyes detect different colours. Explain why coloured objects appear coloured. Explain how filters can be used to make coloured light. Explain why objects look different in light of different colours. Mastery State the meaning of: convex mirror, concave mirror. Use ray diagrams to explain some of the features of images in periscopes. Describe the effects of concave lenses on parallel beams of light. State the meaning of: total internal reflection, critical angle. Describe some uses of total internal reflection such as in optical fibres and in binoculars. Describe the causes and effects of long-sight and short-sight and how different types of lens are used to correct these defects. Explain how different types of lens are used to correct long-sight and short-sight. Explain how paints of different colours can be made by colour subtraction. Year Group 8 Grade Year 8 Science 2 8K Energy Transfers Expected Attainment Confident Emerging Recall that energy can be transferred by heating in conduction, radiation and convection. Recall examples of common thermal conductors and insulators. Identify the process(es) in which energy is transferred by heating in a given situation. Describe how energy is transferred in conduction, convection and radiation. Explain why particular materials are used for given purposes. Use the particle model of matter to explain energy transfers by conduction and convection. Recall ways of reducing energy transfer by conduction, convection and evaporation. Apply the idea of different colours being good or poor emitters or absorbers. Explain why particular materials are used for given purposes. Match Sankey diagrams to simple situations. State the meaning of efficiency and recall some advantages of efficient appliances. Identify useful and wasted energies. Describe whether one machine is more efficient than another. Describe what power means, and the relationship between watts and joules/second. Recall that electricity and mains gas are charged for on the basis of the energy transferred. Explain why power companies use the kWh as a measure of energy. Recall some advantages of low-energy appliances. Advanced Compare conduction in thermal conductors and thermal insulators. Explain the process(es) in which energy is transferred by heating in a given situation. Compare conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation as methods of heat energy transfer. Evaluate ways of increasing or decreasing energy transfer by conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation. Compare the effects of different rates of conduction in different materials. Use Sankey diagrams to compare appliances or processes. Calculate energy efficiencies. Explain why the efficiency can never be greater than 100%. Use data to consider cost efficiency by calculating payback times. Evaluate different ways of keeping something warm. Mastery Explain the causes and effects of wind chill. Apply the idea of thermal mass to homes. Use the formula relating power, energy and time (in W, J and s). Evaluate energy-saving appliances or modifications. Use data to evaluate methods of reducing carbon emissions. Year Group 8 Grade Year 8 Science 2 8L Earth and Space Expected Attainment Confident Emerging Describe differences in the seasons in terms of day length and the height of the Sun. Explain the changes in day length and height of the Sun in terms of the tilt of the Earth’s axis. State what is meant by a magnetic field and recall the shape of the field of a bar magnet. Describe the effect of the Earth’s magnetic field on compass needles. Explain how to arrange two magnets so that they attract or repel each other. Recall the direction in which gravity acts. Recall the factors that affect the strength of gravity. State the meaning of gravitational field strength. Explain why the weight of an object changes if taken to the Moon, but not its mass. Recall that planets and natural satellites are kept in orbit by gravity. State the meaning of: Sun, star, galaxy, Universe, constellation. Describe the Milky Way. State the meaning of: light year. Advanced Use a model to explain the changes in the seasons. Use a model to explain why the height of the Sun at noon and hours of daylight vary with latitude. Use a model to explain the pattern of light and dark at the poles. Explain the effect of the tilt of the Earth’s axis on the energy received from the Sun. Recall the direction of a magnet’s magnetic field. Explain how a compass can be used together with maps for navigation. Explain how a plotting compass can be used to show the shape and direction of a magnetic field. Describe the Earth’s magnetic field and explain why a magnetic compass needle points north. Describe how mass and distance affect the strength of gravity. Describe how gravity affects bodies in space. Use gravitational field strength to calculate weights. Explain that stars in a constellation only appear to be close to each other. Compare the relative sizes and distances of objects in space. Mastery Obtain information from secondary sources to investigate the relationships in astronomical data. Analyse the rotations and axes of other planets to predict annual changes. Describe the shape of the magnetic field between two bar magnets in different arrangements. Use ideas about the Earth’s magnetic field to explain variation, dip and deviation. Explain why the speed of a planet changes as it moves around its orbit. Describe the different shapes of galaxies and relate the view of the sky to a planet’s position in a galaxy. Describe some ways in which astronomers can detect planets orbiting stars other than the Sun. Year Group Grade Year 8 Science 8 2 Working Scientifically Expected Attainment Confident Emerging Recall what is meant by area and use a formula to calculate the area of a rectangle. State the meaning of: estimate. State the meaning of: sample. State the meaning of: accuracy. Identify the ranges of readings in data. Identify variables that need to be controlled in a given experiment. Plan ways in which to control a simple control variable. Explain the need for a fair test. Identify the range of readings in an experiment. State the meaning of: anomalous result, outlier. Identify repeated measurements. Suggest a simple way to improve an investigation. Explain why internationally agreed symbols and conventions are necessary in science communication. Interpret diagrams that use scientific symbols and conventions. State the meaning of: precision. Use ratio notation to compare things. Convert fractions to decimals and percentages. Recall some methods by which scientists comment on one another’s work (e.g. scientific journals, conferences). Advanced Use a formula to calculate the areas of cuboids. Use a sample to calculate an estimate of population size. Plan an appropriate sample size. Explain why data with a small range is of good quality. Calculate means and explain their use. Plan ways in which to control more than one variable. Identify anomalous results/outliers in data. Identify data that is repeatable, not repeatable, reproducible, not reproducible, reliable and not reliable. Explain why repeatable, reproducible, reliable data is better quality. Explain how to improve an investigation. Outline the basic scientific method and how it is modified for largely observational sciences such as geology. Identify hypotheses and some of the evidence that supports/refutes them. Use information about resolution to choose measuring instruments. Describe the process of peer review. Explain why peer review is used Change the subject of a simple mathematical formula. Calculate the gradient of a line on a graph. Mastery Explain the effects of too small and too big a sample size. Identify anomalous results in data. Justify the choice of control variables. Suggest scientific reasons for anomalous results/outliers. Explain how to avoid systematic and random errors. Evaluate peer review.